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Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study.
BMJ Open 2017; 7(10):e016639BO

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING

Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia.

PARTICIPANTS

666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES

24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education.

RESULTS

Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of discretionary foods are required.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.Wolfson Institute of Preventative Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29084791

Citation

Grimes, Carley A., et al. "Dietary Intake and Sources of Sodium and Potassium Among Australian Schoolchildren: Results From the Cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study." BMJ Open, vol. 7, no. 10, 2017, pp. e016639.
Grimes CA, Riddell LJ, Campbell KJ, et al. Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study. BMJ Open. 2017;7(10):e016639.
Grimes, C. A., Riddell, L. J., Campbell, K. J., Beckford, K., Baxter, J. R., He, F. J., & Nowson, C. A. (2017). Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study. BMJ Open, 7(10), pp. e016639. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016639.
Grimes CA, et al. Dietary Intake and Sources of Sodium and Potassium Among Australian Schoolchildren: Results From the Cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) Study. BMJ Open. 2017 Oct 30;7(10):e016639. PubMed PMID: 29084791.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intake and sources of sodium and potassium among Australian schoolchildren: results from the cross-sectional Salt and Other Nutrients in Children (SONIC) study. AU - Grimes,Carley A, AU - Riddell,Lynn J, AU - Campbell,Karen J, AU - Beckford,Kelsey, AU - Baxter,Janet R, AU - He,Feng J, AU - Nowson,Caryl A, Y1 - 2017/10/30/ PY - 2017/11/1/entrez PY - 2017/11/1/pubmed PY - 2018/7/17/medline KW - Australia KW - child KW - potassium KW - sodium chloride, dietary KW - sodium, dietary SP - e016639 EP - e016639 JF - BMJ open JO - BMJ Open VL - 7 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine sodium and potassium urinary excretion by socioeconomic status (SES), discretionary salt use habits and dietary sources of sodium and potassium in a sample of Australian schoolchildren. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary schools located in Victoria, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 666 of 780 children aged 4-12 years who participated in the Salt and Other Nutrients in Children study returned a complete 24-hour urine collection. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: 24-hour urine collection for the measurement of sodium and potassium excretion and 24-hour dietary recall for the assessment of food sources. Parent and child reported use of discretionary salt. SES defined by parental highest level of education. RESULTS: Participants were 9.3 years (95% CI 9.0 to 9.6) of age and 55% were boys. Mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion was 103 (95% CI 99 to 108) mmol/day (salt equivalent 6.1 g/day) and 47 (95% CI 45 to 49) mmol/day, respectively. Mean molar Na:K ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5). 72% of children exceeded the age-specific upper level for sodium intake. After adjustment for age, sex and day of urine collection, children from a low socioeconomic background excreted 10.0 (95% CI 17.8 to 2.1) mmol/day more sodium than those of high socioeconomic background (p=0.04). The major sources of sodium were bread (14.8%), mixed cereal-based dishes (9.9%) and processed meat (8.5%). The major sources of potassium were dairy milk (11.5%), potatoes (7.1%) and fruit/vegetable juice (5.4%). Core foods provided 55.3% of dietary sodium and 75.5% of potassium while discretionary foods provided 44.7% and 24.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For most children, sodium intake exceeds dietary recommendations and there is some indication that children of lower socioeconomic background have the highest intakes. Children are consuming about two times more sodium than potassium. To improve sodium and potassium intakes in schoolchildren, product reformulation of lower salt core foods combined with strategies that seek to reduce the consumption of discretionary foods are required. SN - 2044-6055 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29084791/Dietary_intake_and_sources_of_sodium_and_potassium_among_Australian_schoolchildren:_results_from_the_cross_sectional_Salt_and_Other_Nutrients_in_Children__SONIC__study_ L2 - http://bmjopen.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=29084791 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -