Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir or cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir as a single-tablet regimen for HIV post-exposure prophylaxis.J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 10 01; 72(10):2857-2861.JA
To assess HIV-1 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) non-completion at day 28, comparing ritonavir-boosted lopinavir versus cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir as a single-tablet regimen (STR), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine with both of these therapies.
A prospective, open, randomized clinical trial was performed. Individuals attending the emergency room due to potential sexual exposure to HIV and who met criteria for PEP were randomized 1:3 into two groups receiving either 400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 38) or 150/150 mg of elvitegravir/cobicistat (n = 119), with both groups also receiving 245/200 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Five follow-up visits were scheduled at days 1, 10, 28, 90 and 180. The primary endpoint was PEP non-completion at day 28. Secondary endpoints were adherence, adverse effects and rate of seroconversions. Clinical trials.gov number: NCT08431173.
Median age was 32 years and 95% were males. PEP non-completion at day 28 was 36% (n = 57), with a trend to be higher in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm [lopinavir/ritonavir 47% (n = 18) versus elvitegravir/cobicistat 33% (n = 39), P = 0.10]. We performed a modified ITT analysis including only those patients who attended on day 1. PEP non-completion in this subgroup was higher in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm than in the elvitegravir/cobicistat arm (33% versus 15%, respectively, P = 0.04). Poor adherence was significantly higher in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm versus the elvitegravir/cobicistat arm (47% versus 9%, respectively, P < 0.0001). Adverse events were reported by 73 patients (59%), and were significantly more common in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (90% versus 49%, P = 0.0001). A seroconversion was observed in the elvitegravir/cobicistat arm in a patient with multiple exposures before and after PEP.
A higher PEP non-completion, poor adherence and adverse events were observed in patients allocated to the lopinavir/ritonavir arm, suggesting that STR elvitegravir/cobicistat is a well-tolerated antiretroviral for PEP.