Effects of combined amendments on crop yield and cadmium uptake in two cadmium contaminated soils under rice-wheat rotation.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Feb; 148:303-310.EE
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination in China has become a serious concern due to its high toxicity to human health through food chains. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydrated lime (L), hydroxyapatite (H) and organic fertilizer (F) alone or in combination to remedy a mild (DY) and a moderate (YX) Cd contaminated agricultural soil under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that crops grain yield and Cd concentration, soil pH, CaCl2 extractable Cd and Cd speciation were markedly affected by the amendments. In both cropping seasons, hydrated lime and hydroxyapatite significantly immobilized soil Cd, and hydroxyapatite, organic fertilizer significantly increased grain yield. Hydrated lime mainly increased soil carbonates bound Cd fractions resulted from 16.7% to 36.2% and from 16.8% to 28.3%, and hydroxyapatite increased Fe/Mn oxides Cd fractions from 19.3% to 33.4% and from 31.4% to 42.1% in the DY and YX soils, respectively; while organic fertilizer slightly increased soil exchangeable and organic matter bound Cd fractions. Besides, combined amendments contain alkaline materials and organic materials have the potential to decrease grain Cd and increase grain yield simultaneously. Therefore, in view of the effects of amendments on grain yield and Cd concentration, the cost as well as the potential benefits expected, combined amendments like hydrated lime + organic fertilizer, hydrated lime + hydroxyapatite + organic fertilizer are recommended in practical application. Mechanisms of Cd immobilization affected by amendments are mainly attributed to the changes in soil Cd availability and crops root uptake rather than internal translocation in plants.