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Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Dec; 106(6):1514-1528.AJ

Abstract

Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.Objective: We evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isolated soluble fiber supplementation in overweight and obese adults on outcomes related to weight management [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference] and glucose and insulin metabolism (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin) through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Design: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Cochrane Library databases. Eligible studies were RCTs that compared isolated soluble fiber with placebo treatments without energy-restriction protocols. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled effect sizes and 95% CIs. Meta-regressions were performed to assess outcomes in relation to the intervention duration, fiber dose, and fiber type. Publication bias was assessed via Begg's and Egger's tests and funnel plot inspection.Results: Findings from 12 RCTs (n = 609 participants) from 2 to 17 wk of duration are summarized in this review. Soluble fiber supplementation reduced BMI by 0.84 (95% CI: -1.35, -0.32; P = 0.001), body weight by 2.52 kg (95% CI: -4.25, -0.79 kg; P = 0.004), body fat by 0.41% (95% CI: -0.58%, -0.24%; P < 0.001), fasting glucose by 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.28, -0.06 mmol/L; P = 0.002), and fasting insulin by 15.88 pmol/L (95% CI: -29.05, -2.71 pmol/L; P = 0.02) compared with the effects of placebo treatments. No publication bias was identified. Considerable between-study heterogeneity was observed for most outcomes.Conclusions: Isolated soluble fiber supplementation improves anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese adults, thereby indicating that supplementation may improve fiber intake and health in these individuals. However, the interpretation of these findings warrants caution because of the considerable between-study heterogeneity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03003897.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Nutritional Sciences, and.Division of Nutritional Sciences, and.Division of Nutritional Sciences, and. Departments of Kinesiology and Community Health and.Division of Nutritional Sciences, and hholsche@illinois.edu. Departments of Kinesiology and Community Health and. Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29092878

Citation

Thompson, Sharon V., et al. "Effects of Isolated Soluble Fiber Supplementation On Body Weight, Glycemia, and Insulinemia in Adults With Overweight and Obesity: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 106, no. 6, 2017, pp. 1514-1528.
Thompson SV, Hannon BA, An R, et al. Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(6):1514-1528.
Thompson, S. V., Hannon, B. A., An, R., & Holscher, H. D. (2017). Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(6), 1514-1528. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.117.163246
Thompson SV, et al. Effects of Isolated Soluble Fiber Supplementation On Body Weight, Glycemia, and Insulinemia in Adults With Overweight and Obesity: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(6):1514-1528. PubMed PMID: 29092878.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of isolated soluble fiber supplementation on body weight, glycemia, and insulinemia in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. AU - Thompson,Sharon V, AU - Hannon,Bridget A, AU - An,Ruopeng, AU - Holscher,Hannah D, Y1 - 2017/11/01/ PY - 2017/6/22/received PY - 2017/10/2/accepted PY - 2017/11/3/pubmed PY - 2017/12/12/medline PY - 2017/11/3/entrez KW - body composition KW - glucose KW - insulin KW - meta-analysis KW - soluble fiber supplementation SP - 1514 EP - 1528 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 106 IS - 6 N2 - Background: There is strong epidemiologic evidence that dietary fiber intake is protective against overweight and obesity; however, results of intervention studies have been mixed. Soluble fiber beneficially affects metabolism, and fiber supplementation may be a feasible approach to improve body composition and glycemia in adults with overweight and obesity.Objective: We evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isolated soluble fiber supplementation in overweight and obese adults on outcomes related to weight management [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference] and glucose and insulin metabolism (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and fasting insulin) through a systematic review and meta-analysis.Design: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Cochrane Library databases. Eligible studies were RCTs that compared isolated soluble fiber with placebo treatments without energy-restriction protocols. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled effect sizes and 95% CIs. Meta-regressions were performed to assess outcomes in relation to the intervention duration, fiber dose, and fiber type. Publication bias was assessed via Begg's and Egger's tests and funnel plot inspection.Results: Findings from 12 RCTs (n = 609 participants) from 2 to 17 wk of duration are summarized in this review. Soluble fiber supplementation reduced BMI by 0.84 (95% CI: -1.35, -0.32; P = 0.001), body weight by 2.52 kg (95% CI: -4.25, -0.79 kg; P = 0.004), body fat by 0.41% (95% CI: -0.58%, -0.24%; P < 0.001), fasting glucose by 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.28, -0.06 mmol/L; P = 0.002), and fasting insulin by 15.88 pmol/L (95% CI: -29.05, -2.71 pmol/L; P = 0.02) compared with the effects of placebo treatments. No publication bias was identified. Considerable between-study heterogeneity was observed for most outcomes.Conclusions: Isolated soluble fiber supplementation improves anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in overweight and obese adults, thereby indicating that supplementation may improve fiber intake and health in these individuals. However, the interpretation of these findings warrants caution because of the considerable between-study heterogeneity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03003897. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29092878/Effects_of_isolated_soluble_fiber_supplementation_on_body_weight_glycemia_and_insulinemia_in_adults_with_overweight_and_obesity:_a_systematic_review_and_meta_analysis_of_randomized_controlled_trials_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -