Taurine treatment prevents derangement of the hepatic γ-glutamyl cycle and methylglyoxal metabolism in a mouse model of classical homocystinuria: regulatory crosstalk between thiol and sulfinic acid metabolism.FASEB J 2018; 32(3):1265-1280FJ
Cystathionine β-synthase-deficient homocystinuria (HCU) is a poorly understood, life-threatening inborn error of sulfur metabolism. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) metabolism in a mouse model of HCU demonstrated significant depletion of cysteine, GSH, and GSH disulfide independent of the block in trans-sulfuration compared with wild-type controls. HCU induced the expression of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of γ-glutamyl ligase, GSH synthase (GS), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1, 5-oxoprolinase (OPLAH), and the GSH-dependent methylglyoxal detoxification enzyme, glyoxalase-1. Multiple components of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant-response regulatory axis were induced without any detectable activation of Nrf2. Metabolomic analysis revealed the accumulation of multiple γ-glutamyl amino acids and that plasma ophthalmate levels could serve as a noninvasive marker for hepatic redox stress. Neither cysteine, nor betaine treatment was able to reverse the observed enzyme inductions. Taurine treatment normalized the expression levels of γ-glutamyl ligase C/M, GS, OPLAH, and glyoxalase-1, and reversed HCU-induced deficits in protein glutathionylation by acting to double GSH levels relative to controls. Collectively, our data indicate that the perturbation of the γ-glutamyl cycle could contribute to multiple sequelae in HCU and that taurine has significant therapeutic potential for both HCU and other diseases for which GSH depletion is a critical pathogenic factor.-Maclean, K. N., Jiang, H., Aivazidis, S., Kim, E., Shearn, C. T., Harris, P. S., Petersen, D. R., Allen, R. H., Stabler, S. P., Roede, J. R. Taurine treatment prevents derangement of the hepatic γ-glutamyl cycle and methylglyoxal metabolism in a mouse model of classical homocystinuria: regulatory crosstalk between thiol and sulfinic acid metabolism.