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Root uptake and shoot accumulation of cadmium by lettuce at various Cd:Zn ratios in nutrient solution.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Feb; 148:441-446.EE

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to animals and humans after it accumulates over decades in the kidney cortex. Food crops grown in Cd-contaminated soils are the primary sources of excessive Cd entry into humans. Although plant available Zn concentration in soil is an important factor which can greatly reduce Cd uptake by plant roots and its translocation into the edible parts, Cd:Zn ratio is suggested to be a more important factor in comparison with Zn concentration alone in determining Cd uptake by plants. In the present study, the physiological mechanisms of Cd absorption by roots and its translocation to leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) at various Cd:Zn ratios in the rooting media were investigated. For this purpose, seedlings of hydroponically-grown lettuce were exposed to combinations of four Zn (0, 12.5, 50 and 100μM) and four Cd (0, 0.5, 1 and 10μM) concentrations providing different ratios of Cd:Zn. At each level of Cd, decreasing the Cd:Zn ratio by increasing Zn concentration in the nutrient solution caused significant reduction of root symplastic Cd and also reduced Cd loading into the xylem and Cd transport to and accumulation in leaves. The highest root symplastic Cd (1087mg/kg-1 Dry Weight [DW]) and shoot Cd concentrations (64mg/kg-1 DW) were observed at the highest Cd:Zn ratio of = 0.8 (Zn = 12.5, Cd = 10). At the Cd:Zn ratios of ≤ 0.01, shoot Cd concentration was less than the Detection Limit (< 0.02mg/kg DW). Decreasing Cd:Zn ratio in nutrient solution was accompanied with significant increase in root apoplastic Cd and decrease in the root symplastic Cd. According to the obtained results, at the Cd:Zn ratio equal to 0.01 and less, Cd concentration in lettuce shoots decreased to < 0.02mg/kg.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan, Iran.Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address: amirhkhosh@cc.iut.ac.ir.Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, 14115-336 Tehran, Iran.Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modares, 14115-336 Tehran, Iran.Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29102904

Citation

Zare, A A., et al. "Root Uptake and Shoot Accumulation of Cadmium By Lettuce at Various Cd:Zn Ratios in Nutrient Solution." Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 148, 2018, pp. 441-446.
Zare AA, Khoshgoftarmanesh AH, Malakouti MJ, et al. Root uptake and shoot accumulation of cadmium by lettuce at various Cd:Zn ratios in nutrient solution. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;148:441-446.
Zare, A. A., Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Malakouti, M. J., Bahrami, H. A., & Chaney, R. L. (2018). Root uptake and shoot accumulation of cadmium by lettuce at various Cd:Zn ratios in nutrient solution. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 148, 441-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.10.045
Zare AA, et al. Root Uptake and Shoot Accumulation of Cadmium By Lettuce at Various Cd:Zn Ratios in Nutrient Solution. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;148:441-446. PubMed PMID: 29102904.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Root uptake and shoot accumulation of cadmium by lettuce at various Cd:Zn ratios in nutrient solution. AU - Zare,A A, AU - Khoshgoftarmanesh,A H, AU - Malakouti,M J, AU - Bahrami,H A, AU - Chaney,R L, Y1 - 2017/11/06/ PY - 2017/03/18/received PY - 2017/10/18/revised PY - 2017/10/22/accepted PY - 2017/11/6/pubmed PY - 2018/6/13/medline PY - 2017/11/6/entrez KW - Apoplast KW - Cadmium KW - Human health KW - Symplast KW - Xylem sap KW - Zinc SP - 441 EP - 446 JF - Ecotoxicology and environmental safety JO - Ecotoxicol Environ Saf VL - 148 N2 - Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to animals and humans after it accumulates over decades in the kidney cortex. Food crops grown in Cd-contaminated soils are the primary sources of excessive Cd entry into humans. Although plant available Zn concentration in soil is an important factor which can greatly reduce Cd uptake by plant roots and its translocation into the edible parts, Cd:Zn ratio is suggested to be a more important factor in comparison with Zn concentration alone in determining Cd uptake by plants. In the present study, the physiological mechanisms of Cd absorption by roots and its translocation to leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) at various Cd:Zn ratios in the rooting media were investigated. For this purpose, seedlings of hydroponically-grown lettuce were exposed to combinations of four Zn (0, 12.5, 50 and 100μM) and four Cd (0, 0.5, 1 and 10μM) concentrations providing different ratios of Cd:Zn. At each level of Cd, decreasing the Cd:Zn ratio by increasing Zn concentration in the nutrient solution caused significant reduction of root symplastic Cd and also reduced Cd loading into the xylem and Cd transport to and accumulation in leaves. The highest root symplastic Cd (1087mg/kg-1 Dry Weight [DW]) and shoot Cd concentrations (64mg/kg-1 DW) were observed at the highest Cd:Zn ratio of = 0.8 (Zn = 12.5, Cd = 10). At the Cd:Zn ratios of ≤ 0.01, shoot Cd concentration was less than the Detection Limit (< 0.02mg/kg DW). Decreasing Cd:Zn ratio in nutrient solution was accompanied with significant increase in root apoplastic Cd and decrease in the root symplastic Cd. According to the obtained results, at the Cd:Zn ratio equal to 0.01 and less, Cd concentration in lettuce shoots decreased to < 0.02mg/kg. SN - 1090-2414 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29102904/Root_uptake_and_shoot_accumulation_of_cadmium_by_lettuce_at_various_Cd:Zn_ratios_in_nutrient_solution_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0147-6513(17)30717-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -