Effect of citrate on the urinary excretion of calcium and oxalate: relevance to calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.Clin Chem. 1989 Jan; 35(1):23-8.CC
Studies in 24 recurrent oxalate stone-formers have shown that values for urinary calcium excretion for this group on at-home diets vary significantly (P less than 0.001) more than values for creatinine excretions. By placing stone-formers on controlled in-hospital diets and measuring their calcium excretions, we were able to predict probable outpatient hypercalciuria (greater than 7.5 mmol/day) with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 95%. In this study, the renal loss of calcium during low-calcium diets was proportional to the absorptive hypercalciuria during high-calcium diets. Calcium loading experiments in fasted stone-formers and normal subjects indicated that citrate, at citrate:calcium molar ratios ranging from 0.12 to 1, stimulated urinary calcium excretion more than did calcium carbonate loading alone. In addition, citrate also significantly (P less than 0.05) increased the excretion of urinary oxalate by two normal subjects for a given load of calcium oxalate. Malabsorption of citrate and possibly other hydroxycarboxylic acids may thus predispose to oxalate nephrolithiasis by promoting calcium and oxalate absorption.