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Status of soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined by parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Nov; 11(11):e0006022.PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the most common parasitic infections in impoverished communities, particularly among children. Current STH control is through school-based mass drug administration (MDA), which in the Philippines is done twice annually. As expected, MDA has decreased the intensity and prevalence of STH over time. As a result, the common Kato Katz (KK) thick smear method of detecting STH is less effective because it lacks sensitivity in low intensity infections, making it difficult to measure the impact of deworming programs.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

A cross-sectional study was carried out over a four-week period from October 27, 2014 until November 20, 2014 in Laguna province, the Philippines. Stool samples were collected from 263 schoolchildren, to determine the prevalence of STH and compare diagnostic accuracy of multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with the KK. A large discrepancy in the prevalence between the two techniques was noted for the detection of at least one type of STH infection (33.8% by KK vs. 78.3% by qPCR), Ascaris lumbricoides (20.5% by KK vs. 60.8% by qPCR) and Trichuris trichiura (23.6% by KK vs. 38.8% by qPCR). Considering the combined results of both methods, the prevalence of at least one type of helminth infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 83.3%, 67.7%, and 53.6%, respectively. Sensitivity of the qPCR for detecting at least one type of STH infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 94.1%, 89.9%, and 72.3% respectively; whereas KK sensitivity was 40.6%, 30.3%, and 44.0%, respectively. The qPCR method also detected infections with Ancylostoma spp. (4.6%), Necator americanus (2.3%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%) that were missed by KK.

CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE

qPCR may provide new and important diagnostic information to improve assessment of the effectiveness and impact of integrated control strategies particularly in areas where large-scale STH control has led to low prevalence and/or intensity of infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines.Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Manila, Philippines.Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.Discipline of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel Switzerland. University of Basel, Basel Switzerland.School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia. Hunan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Control on Schistosomiasis in Lake Region, Yueyang, People's Republic of China.Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Infectious Diseases Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.Research School of Population Health, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29108026

Citation

Mationg, Mary Lorraine S., et al. "Status of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined By Parasitological and Molecular Diagnostic Techniques." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 11, no. 11, 2017, pp. e0006022.
Mationg MLS, Gordon CA, Tallo VL, et al. Status of soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined by parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(11):e0006022.
Mationg, M. L. S., Gordon, C. A., Tallo, V. L., Olveda, R. M., Alday, P. P., Reñosa, M. D. C., Bieri, F. A., Williams, G. M., Clements, A. C. A., Steinmann, P., Halton, K., Li, Y., McManus, D. P., & Gray, D. J. (2017). Status of soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined by parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(11), e0006022. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006022
Mationg MLS, et al. Status of Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined By Parasitological and Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(11):e0006022. PubMed PMID: 29108026.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Status of soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren in Laguna Province, the Philippines: Determined by parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques. AU - Mationg,Mary Lorraine S, AU - Gordon,Catherine A, AU - Tallo,Veronica L, AU - Olveda,Remigio M, AU - Alday,Portia P, AU - Reñosa,Mark Donald C, AU - Bieri,Franziska A, AU - Williams,Gail M, AU - Clements,Archie C A, AU - Steinmann,Peter, AU - Halton,Kate, AU - Li,Yuesheng, AU - McManus,Donald P, AU - Gray,Darren J, Y1 - 2017/11/06/ PY - 2017/05/01/received PY - 2017/10/07/accepted PY - 2017/11/27/revised PY - 2017/11/7/pubmed PY - 2017/12/6/medline PY - 2017/11/7/entrez SP - e0006022 EP - e0006022 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 11 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are the most common parasitic infections in impoverished communities, particularly among children. Current STH control is through school-based mass drug administration (MDA), which in the Philippines is done twice annually. As expected, MDA has decreased the intensity and prevalence of STH over time. As a result, the common Kato Katz (KK) thick smear method of detecting STH is less effective because it lacks sensitivity in low intensity infections, making it difficult to measure the impact of deworming programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a four-week period from October 27, 2014 until November 20, 2014 in Laguna province, the Philippines. Stool samples were collected from 263 schoolchildren, to determine the prevalence of STH and compare diagnostic accuracy of multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with the KK. A large discrepancy in the prevalence between the two techniques was noted for the detection of at least one type of STH infection (33.8% by KK vs. 78.3% by qPCR), Ascaris lumbricoides (20.5% by KK vs. 60.8% by qPCR) and Trichuris trichiura (23.6% by KK vs. 38.8% by qPCR). Considering the combined results of both methods, the prevalence of at least one type of helminth infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 83.3%, 67.7%, and 53.6%, respectively. Sensitivity of the qPCR for detecting at least one type of STH infection, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura were 94.1%, 89.9%, and 72.3% respectively; whereas KK sensitivity was 40.6%, 30.3%, and 44.0%, respectively. The qPCR method also detected infections with Ancylostoma spp. (4.6%), Necator americanus (2.3%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.8%) that were missed by KK. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: qPCR may provide new and important diagnostic information to improve assessment of the effectiveness and impact of integrated control strategies particularly in areas where large-scale STH control has led to low prevalence and/or intensity of infection. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29108026/Status_of_soil_transmitted_helminth_infections_in_schoolchildren_in_Laguna_Province_the_Philippines:_Determined_by_parasitological_and_molecular_diagnostic_techniques_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006022 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -