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The adverse vascular effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro: role of length of MWCNTs.
J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Nov 10; 15(1):80.JN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Increasing evidences indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) could induce adverse vascular effects, but the role of length of MWCNTs in determining the toxic effects is less studied. This study investigated the adverse effects of two well-characterized MWCNTs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

METHODS

The internalization and localization of MWCNTs in HUVECs were examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs to HUVECs was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium-8 (WST-8), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutral red uptake assays. Oxidative stress was indicated by the measurement of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ELISA was used to determine the release of inflammatory cytokines. THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs was also measured. To indicate the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the expression of ddit3 and xbp-1s was measured by RT-PCR, and BiP protein level was measured by Western blot.

RESULTS

Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates the internalization of MWCNTs into HUVECs, with a localization in nuclei and mitochondria. The longer MWCNTs induced a higher level of cytotoxicity to HUVECs compared with the shorter ones. Neither of MWCNTs significantly promoted intracellular ROS, but the longer MWCNTs caused a higher depletion of GSH. Exposure to both types of MWCNTs significantly promoted THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, accompanying with a significant increase of release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) or soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1). Moreover, THP-1 adhesion and release of IL-6 and sVCAM-1 induced by the longer MWCNTs were significantly higher compared with the responses induced by the shorter ones. The biomarker of ER stress, ddit3 expression, but not xbp-1s expression or BiP protein level, was significantly induced by the exposure of longer MWCNTs.

CONCLUSIONS

Combined, these results indicated length dependent toxic effects of MWCNTs to HUVECs in vitro, which might be associated with oxidative stress and activation of ER stress.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha, 410205, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Environment-Friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, Lab of Biochemistry, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, People's Republic of China.Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha, 410205, People's Republic of China. liuliangliang@caas.cn.Institute of Bast Fiber Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha, 410205, People's Republic of China. caoyi39@xtu.edu.cn. Key Laboratory of Environment-Friendly Chemistry and Application of Ministry of Education, Lab of Biochemistry, College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, People's Republic of China. caoyi39@xtu.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29126419

Citation

Long, Jimin, et al. "The Adverse Vascular Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) to Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) in Vitro: Role of Length of MWCNTs." Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 15, no. 1, 2017, p. 80.
Long J, Xiao Y, Liu L, et al. The adverse vascular effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro: role of length of MWCNTs. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017;15(1):80.
Long, J., Xiao, Y., Liu, L., & Cao, Y. (2017). The adverse vascular effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro: role of length of MWCNTs. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 15(1), 80. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-017-0318-x
Long J, et al. The Adverse Vascular Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) to Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) in Vitro: Role of Length of MWCNTs. J Nanobiotechnology. 2017 Nov 10;15(1):80. PubMed PMID: 29126419.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The adverse vascular effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro: role of length of MWCNTs. AU - Long,Jimin, AU - Xiao,Yafang, AU - Liu,Liangliang, AU - Cao,Yi, Y1 - 2017/11/10/ PY - 2017/06/08/received PY - 2017/11/06/accepted PY - 2017/11/12/entrez PY - 2017/11/12/pubmed PY - 2018/7/7/medline KW - Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress KW - Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) KW - Multi-walled carbon nanobute (MWCNT) KW - Oxidative stress KW - Vascular effect SP - 80 EP - 80 JF - Journal of nanobiotechnology JO - J Nanobiotechnology VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences indicate that exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) could induce adverse vascular effects, but the role of length of MWCNTs in determining the toxic effects is less studied. This study investigated the adverse effects of two well-characterized MWCNTs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: The internalization and localization of MWCNTs in HUVECs were examined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of MWCNTs to HUVECs was assessed by water soluble tetrazolium-8 (WST-8), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neutral red uptake assays. Oxidative stress was indicated by the measurement of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ELISA was used to determine the release of inflammatory cytokines. THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs was also measured. To indicate the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the expression of ddit3 and xbp-1s was measured by RT-PCR, and BiP protein level was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy observation indicates the internalization of MWCNTs into HUVECs, with a localization in nuclei and mitochondria. The longer MWCNTs induced a higher level of cytotoxicity to HUVECs compared with the shorter ones. Neither of MWCNTs significantly promoted intracellular ROS, but the longer MWCNTs caused a higher depletion of GSH. Exposure to both types of MWCNTs significantly promoted THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs, accompanying with a significant increase of release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) or soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1). Moreover, THP-1 adhesion and release of IL-6 and sVCAM-1 induced by the longer MWCNTs were significantly higher compared with the responses induced by the shorter ones. The biomarker of ER stress, ddit3 expression, but not xbp-1s expression or BiP protein level, was significantly induced by the exposure of longer MWCNTs. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, these results indicated length dependent toxic effects of MWCNTs to HUVECs in vitro, which might be associated with oxidative stress and activation of ER stress. SN - 1477-3155 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29126419/The_adverse_vascular_effects_of_multi_walled_carbon_nanotubes__MWCNTs__to_human_vein_endothelial_cells__HUVECs__in_vitro:_role_of_length_of_MWCNTs_ L2 - https://jnanobiotechnology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12951-017-0318-x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -