Determinants of influenza vaccination among high-risk Black and White adults.Vaccine. 2017 12 18; 35(51):7154-7159.V
Adults with chronic conditions are at much greater risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality, yet flu vaccine uptake remains suboptimal. Research focused on the high-risk population has been limited, particularly related to racial disparities in vaccination. We explore a broad range of demographic, racial, and psychosocial factors to identify predictors of vaccination among high-risk adults, with a focus on identify differences between Black and White adults.
We conducted an online survey in March 2015, utilizing international research firm GfK's KnowledgePanel, for a nationally representative sample of Black and White adults (≥18, USA) and limited analysis adults with high-risk of influenza-related complications. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed demographic, racial, and psychosocial predictors across vaccine uptake in the past five years and across racial group.
424 (52.2%) Black and 388 (47.8%) White respondents with high-risk complications completed the survey. 383 (47.3%) reported vaccination annually, 99 (12.2%) most years, 104 (12.9%) once/twice, and 223 (27.6%) never.ANOVA confirmed significant differences in vaccine behavior for most demographic predictors (except education), all racial factors (including racial fairness, experiences of discrimination, etc.), and most psychosocial factors (including vaccine attitudes, trust in the vaccine, etc.). ANOVA confirmed significant differences for most factors by race. We observed significant interaction effects between race and vaccine behavior for subjective social status, access to medical care, knowledge of vaccine recommendations, vaccine attitudes, perceived side effect risks, descriptive norms, subjective norms, flu vaccine hesitancy, and flu vaccine confidence, thus implying racial differences in the connection between vaccine uptake and key demographic, racial, and psychosocial factors.
This study provides a novel examination of flu vaccine behavior among high-risk Blacks and Whites that identified factors influencing vaccine uptake.We found significant differences by race. Health care professionals can use this information to more effectively target high-risk adults during flu season.