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The distribution and trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine mammals from Canada's Eastern Arctic.
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar 15; 618:500-517.ST

Abstract

Arctic contaminant research in the marine environment has focused on organohalogen compounds and mercury mainly because they are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. This review summarizes and discusses the patterns and trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic relative to the rest of the Canadian Arctic. The review provides explanations for these trends and looks at the implications of climate-related changes on contaminants in these marine mammals in a region that has been reviewed little. Presently, the highest levels of total mercury (THg) and the legacy pesticide HCH in ringed seals and polar bears are found in the Western Canadian Arctic relative to other locations. Whereas, highest levels of some legacy contaminants, including ∑PCBs, PCB 153, ∑DDTs, p,p'-DDE, ∑CHLs, ClBz are found in the east (i.e., Ungava Bay and Labrador) and in the Beaufort Sea relative to other locations. The highest levels of recent contaminants, including PBDEs and PFOS are found at lower latitudes. Feeding ecology (e.g., feeding at a higher trophic position) is shaping the elevated levels of THg and some legacy contaminants in the west compared to the east. Spatial and temporal trends for POPs and THg are underpinned by historical loadings of surface ocean reservoirs including the Western Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean. Trends set up by the distribution of water masses across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are then acted upon locally by on-going atmospheric deposition, which is the dominant contributor for more recent contaminants. Warming and continued decline in sea ice are likely to result in further shifts in food web structure, which are likely to increase contaminant burdens in marine mammals. Monitoring of seawater and a range of trophic levels would provide a better basis to inform communities about contaminants in traditionally harvested foods, allow us to understand the causes of contaminant trends in marine ecosystems, and to track environmental response to source controls instituted under international conventions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address: tanya_brown@sfu.ca.Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2, Canada; Centre for Earth Observation Science, Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Canada.Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6, Canada.Environment and Climate Change Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29145101

Citation

Brown, Tanya M., et al. "The Distribution and Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mercury in Marine Mammals From Canada's Eastern Arctic." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 618, 2018, pp. 500-517.
Brown TM, Macdonald RW, Muir DCG, et al. The distribution and trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine mammals from Canada's Eastern Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 2018;618:500-517.
Brown, T. M., Macdonald, R. W., Muir, D. C. G., & Letcher, R. J. (2018). The distribution and trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine mammals from Canada's Eastern Arctic. The Science of the Total Environment, 618, 500-517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.052
Brown TM, et al. The Distribution and Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Mercury in Marine Mammals From Canada's Eastern Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Mar 15;618:500-517. PubMed PMID: 29145101.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The distribution and trends of persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine mammals from Canada's Eastern Arctic. AU - Brown,Tanya M, AU - Macdonald,Robie W, AU - Muir,Derek C G, AU - Letcher,Robert J, Y1 - 2017/11/13/ PY - 2017/09/05/received PY - 2017/11/03/revised PY - 2017/11/04/accepted PY - 2017/11/18/pubmed PY - 2018/8/24/medline PY - 2017/11/18/entrez KW - Canadian Arctic KW - Marine environment KW - Mercury KW - Persistent organic pollutants KW - Spatial trends SP - 500 EP - 517 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 618 N2 - Arctic contaminant research in the marine environment has focused on organohalogen compounds and mercury mainly because they are bioaccumulative, persistent and toxic. This review summarizes and discusses the patterns and trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Eastern Canadian Arctic relative to the rest of the Canadian Arctic. The review provides explanations for these trends and looks at the implications of climate-related changes on contaminants in these marine mammals in a region that has been reviewed little. Presently, the highest levels of total mercury (THg) and the legacy pesticide HCH in ringed seals and polar bears are found in the Western Canadian Arctic relative to other locations. Whereas, highest levels of some legacy contaminants, including ∑PCBs, PCB 153, ∑DDTs, p,p'-DDE, ∑CHLs, ClBz are found in the east (i.e., Ungava Bay and Labrador) and in the Beaufort Sea relative to other locations. The highest levels of recent contaminants, including PBDEs and PFOS are found at lower latitudes. Feeding ecology (e.g., feeding at a higher trophic position) is shaping the elevated levels of THg and some legacy contaminants in the west compared to the east. Spatial and temporal trends for POPs and THg are underpinned by historical loadings of surface ocean reservoirs including the Western Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean. Trends set up by the distribution of water masses across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago are then acted upon locally by on-going atmospheric deposition, which is the dominant contributor for more recent contaminants. Warming and continued decline in sea ice are likely to result in further shifts in food web structure, which are likely to increase contaminant burdens in marine mammals. Monitoring of seawater and a range of trophic levels would provide a better basis to inform communities about contaminants in traditionally harvested foods, allow us to understand the causes of contaminant trends in marine ecosystems, and to track environmental response to source controls instituted under international conventions. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29145101/The_distribution_and_trends_of_persistent_organic_pollutants_and_mercury_in_marine_mammals_from_Canada's_Eastern_Arctic_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(17)33110-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -