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Pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and gestational diabetes as predictors of body composition in offspring twenty years later: evidence from two birth cohort studies.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2018 04; 42(4):872-879.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Global prevalence of overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing. In pregnant women both conditions affect offspring's later health. Overweight/obesity is a risk factor of GDM; to what extent maternal overweight/obesity explains long-term effects of GDM in offspring is unknown.

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m-2) and GDM, occurring together or separately, on body composition among adult offspring.

METHODS

Participants include 891 individuals aged 24.1 years (s.d. 1.4) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER and AYLS). Adult offspring of normoglycemic mothers with overweight/obesity (ONOO, n=153), offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM; n=191) and controls (n=547) underwent anthropometric measurements and bioimpedance analysis. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Data were analyzed by linear regression models adjusted for confounders.

RESULTS

Compared with controls, ONOO-participants showed higher BMI (men 1.64 kg m-2 (95% confidence interval 0.57, 2.72); women 1.41 kg m-2 (0.20, 2.63)) and fat percentage (men 2.70% (0.99, 4.41); women 2.98% (0.87, 5.09)) with larger waist circumferences (men 3.34 cm (0.68, 5.99); women 3.09 cm (0.35, 5.83)). Likewise, OGDM-participants showed higher fat percentage (men 1.97% (0.32, 3.61); women 2.32% (0.24, 4.41)). Body mass index was non-significantly different between OGDM-participants and controls (men 0.88 kg m-2 (-0.17, 1.92); women 0.82 kg m-2 (-0.39, 2.04)). Also waist circumferences were larger (men 2.63 cm (-0.01, 5.28); women 3.39 cm (0.60, 6.18)); this difference was statistically significant in OGDM-women only. Differences in body composition measures were stronger among offspring of women with both GDM and overweight/obesity. For instance, fat mass was higher among OGDM-participants of overweight mothers (men 4.24 kg (1.36, 7.11) vs controls; women 5.22 kg (1.33, 9.11)) than OGDM participants of normal weight mothers (men 1.50 kg (-2.11, 5.11) higher vs controls; women 1.57 kg (-3.27, 6.42)).

CONCLUSIONS

Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and GDM are associated with unhealthy body size and composition in offspring over 20 years later. Effects of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight appear more pronounced.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. PEDEGO Research Unit (Research Unit for Pediatrics, Dermatology, Clinical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology), Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. PEDEGO Research Unit (Research Unit for Pediatrics, Dermatology, Clinical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology), Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK.Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Imperial College, London, UK.Department of Psychology and Logopedics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.Department of Health, Chronic Disease Prevention Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Oulu, Finland. PEDEGO Research Unit (Research Unit for Pediatrics, Dermatology, Clinical Genetics, Obstetrics and Gynecology), Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29146992

Citation

Kaseva, N, et al. "Pre-pregnancy Overweight or Obesity and Gestational Diabetes as Predictors of Body Composition in Offspring Twenty Years Later: Evidence From Two Birth Cohort Studies." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 42, no. 4, 2018, pp. 872-879.
Kaseva N, Vääräsmäki M, Matinolli HM, et al. Pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and gestational diabetes as predictors of body composition in offspring twenty years later: evidence from two birth cohort studies. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018;42(4):872-879.
Kaseva, N., Vääräsmäki, M., Matinolli, H. M., Sipola-Leppänen, M., Tikanmäki, M., Heinonen, K., Lano, A., Wolke, D., Andersson, S., Järvelin, M. R., Räikkönen, K., Eriksson, J. G., & Kajantie, E. (2018). Pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and gestational diabetes as predictors of body composition in offspring twenty years later: evidence from two birth cohort studies. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 42(4), 872-879. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.277
Kaseva N, et al. Pre-pregnancy Overweight or Obesity and Gestational Diabetes as Predictors of Body Composition in Offspring Twenty Years Later: Evidence From Two Birth Cohort Studies. Int J Obes (Lond). 2018;42(4):872-879. PubMed PMID: 29146992.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and gestational diabetes as predictors of body composition in offspring twenty years later: evidence from two birth cohort studies. AU - Kaseva,N, AU - Vääräsmäki,M, AU - Matinolli,H-M, AU - Sipola-Leppänen,M, AU - Tikanmäki,M, AU - Heinonen,K, AU - Lano,A, AU - Wolke,D, AU - Andersson,S, AU - Järvelin,M-R, AU - Räikkönen,K, AU - Eriksson,J G, AU - Kajantie,E, Y1 - 2017/11/17/ PY - 2017/06/07/received PY - 2017/10/11/revised PY - 2017/10/30/accepted PY - 2017/11/18/pubmed PY - 2019/3/26/medline PY - 2017/11/18/entrez SP - 872 EP - 879 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 42 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Global prevalence of overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing. In pregnant women both conditions affect offspring's later health. Overweight/obesity is a risk factor of GDM; to what extent maternal overweight/obesity explains long-term effects of GDM in offspring is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 kg m-2) and GDM, occurring together or separately, on body composition among adult offspring. METHODS: Participants include 891 individuals aged 24.1 years (s.d. 1.4) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER and AYLS). Adult offspring of normoglycemic mothers with overweight/obesity (ONOO, n=153), offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM; n=191) and controls (n=547) underwent anthropometric measurements and bioimpedance analysis. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Data were analyzed by linear regression models adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, ONOO-participants showed higher BMI (men 1.64 kg m-2 (95% confidence interval 0.57, 2.72); women 1.41 kg m-2 (0.20, 2.63)) and fat percentage (men 2.70% (0.99, 4.41); women 2.98% (0.87, 5.09)) with larger waist circumferences (men 3.34 cm (0.68, 5.99); women 3.09 cm (0.35, 5.83)). Likewise, OGDM-participants showed higher fat percentage (men 1.97% (0.32, 3.61); women 2.32% (0.24, 4.41)). Body mass index was non-significantly different between OGDM-participants and controls (men 0.88 kg m-2 (-0.17, 1.92); women 0.82 kg m-2 (-0.39, 2.04)). Also waist circumferences were larger (men 2.63 cm (-0.01, 5.28); women 3.39 cm (0.60, 6.18)); this difference was statistically significant in OGDM-women only. Differences in body composition measures were stronger among offspring of women with both GDM and overweight/obesity. For instance, fat mass was higher among OGDM-participants of overweight mothers (men 4.24 kg (1.36, 7.11) vs controls; women 5.22 kg (1.33, 9.11)) than OGDM participants of normal weight mothers (men 1.50 kg (-2.11, 5.11) higher vs controls; women 1.57 kg (-3.27, 6.42)). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and GDM are associated with unhealthy body size and composition in offspring over 20 years later. Effects of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight appear more pronounced. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29146992/Pre_pregnancy_overweight_or_obesity_and_gestational_diabetes_as_predictors_of_body_composition_in_offspring_twenty_years_later:_evidence_from_two_birth_cohort_studies_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2017.277 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -