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The dopamine D4 receptor gene, birth weight, maternal depression, maternal attention, and the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age: A prospective gene×environment analysis.
Infant Behav Dev. 2018 02; 50:64-77.IB

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Efforts to understand the developmental pathways for disorganized attachment reflect the importance of disorganized attachment on the prediction of future psychopathology. The inconsistent findings on the prediction of disorganized attachment from the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, birth weight, and maternal depression as well as the evidence supporting the contribution of early maternal care, suggest the importance of exploring a gene by environment model.

METHODS

Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment project; consisting of 655 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 genotype was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the 7-repeat allele. Maternal depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at the prenatal, 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments. Maternal attention was measured at 6-months using a videotaped session of a 20-min non-feeding interaction. Attachment was assessed at 36-months using the Strange Situation Procedure.

RESULTS

The presence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele was associated with less disorganized attachment, β=-1.11, OR=0.33, p=0.0008. Maternal looking away frequency showed significant interactions with maternal depression at the prenatal assessment, β=0.003, OR=1.003, p=0.023, and at 24 months, β=0.004, OR=1.004, p=0.021, as at both time points, women suffering from depression and with frequent looking away behavior had an increased probability of disorganized attachment in their child, while those with less looking away behavior had a decreased probability of disorganized attachment in their child at 36 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Our models support the contribution of biological and multiple environmental factors in the complex prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months.

Authors+Show Affiliations

McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Centre for Child Development and Mental Health, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.University de Quebec à Montréal, Montreal, Canada.Centre for Child Development and Mental Health, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.Centre for Child Development and Mental Health, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.McGill University, Montreal, Canada.McGill University, Montreal, Canada.McGill University, Montreal, Canada.Leiden University, Netherlands.McGill University, Montreal, Canada.St-Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Canada.McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.Ludmer Centre for Neuroinformatics and Mental Health, Montreal, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Canada.Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Ludmer Centre for Neuroinformatics and Mental Health, Montreal, Canada; Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Canada.McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Centre for Child Development and Mental Health, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address: ashley.wazana@mcgill.ca.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29149620

Citation

Graffi, Justin, et al. "The Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Birth Weight, Maternal Depression, Maternal Attention, and the Prediction of Disorganized Attachment at 36 Months of Age: a Prospective Gene×environment Analysis." Infant Behavior & Development, vol. 50, 2018, pp. 64-77.
Graffi J, Moss E, Jolicoeur-Martineau A, et al. The dopamine D4 receptor gene, birth weight, maternal depression, maternal attention, and the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age: A prospective gene×environment analysis. Infant Behav Dev. 2018;50:64-77.
Graffi, J., Moss, E., Jolicoeur-Martineau, A., Moss, G., Lecompte, V., Pascuzzo, K., Babineau, V., Gordon-Green, C., Mileva-Seitz, V. R., Minde, K., Sassi, R., Steiner, M., Kennedy, J. L., Gaudreau, H., Levitan, R., Meaney, M. J., & Wazana, A. (2018). The dopamine D4 receptor gene, birth weight, maternal depression, maternal attention, and the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age: A prospective gene×environment analysis. Infant Behavior & Development, 50, 64-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2017.11.004
Graffi J, et al. The Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene, Birth Weight, Maternal Depression, Maternal Attention, and the Prediction of Disorganized Attachment at 36 Months of Age: a Prospective Gene×environment Analysis. Infant Behav Dev. 2018;50:64-77. PubMed PMID: 29149620.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The dopamine D4 receptor gene, birth weight, maternal depression, maternal attention, and the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age: A prospective gene×environment analysis. AU - Graffi,Justin, AU - Moss,Ellen, AU - Jolicoeur-Martineau,Alexia, AU - Moss,Gal, AU - Lecompte,Vanessa, AU - Pascuzzo,Katherine, AU - Babineau,Vanessa, AU - Gordon-Green,Cathryn, AU - Mileva-Seitz,Viara R, AU - Minde,Klaus, AU - Sassi,Roberto, AU - Steiner,Meir, AU - Kennedy,James L, AU - Gaudreau,Helene, AU - Levitan,Robert, AU - Meaney,Michael J, AU - Wazana,Ashley, AU - ,, Y1 - 2017/11/21/ PY - 2017/04/13/received PY - 2017/11/03/revised PY - 2017/11/07/accepted PY - 2017/11/18/pubmed PY - 2018/11/6/medline PY - 2017/11/18/entrez KW - Birth weight KW - DRD4 KW - Disorganized attachment KW - Gene×environment KW - Maternal attention KW - Maternal depression SP - 64 EP - 77 JF - Infant behavior & development JO - Infant Behav Dev VL - 50 N2 - BACKGROUND: Efforts to understand the developmental pathways for disorganized attachment reflect the importance of disorganized attachment on the prediction of future psychopathology. The inconsistent findings on the prediction of disorganized attachment from the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene, birth weight, and maternal depression as well as the evidence supporting the contribution of early maternal care, suggest the importance of exploring a gene by environment model. METHODS: Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability, and Neurodevelopment project; consisting of 655 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 genotype was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the 7-repeat allele. Maternal depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale at the prenatal, 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments. Maternal attention was measured at 6-months using a videotaped session of a 20-min non-feeding interaction. Attachment was assessed at 36-months using the Strange Situation Procedure. RESULTS: The presence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele was associated with less disorganized attachment, β=-1.11, OR=0.33, p=0.0008. Maternal looking away frequency showed significant interactions with maternal depression at the prenatal assessment, β=0.003, OR=1.003, p=0.023, and at 24 months, β=0.004, OR=1.004, p=0.021, as at both time points, women suffering from depression and with frequent looking away behavior had an increased probability of disorganized attachment in their child, while those with less looking away behavior had a decreased probability of disorganized attachment in their child at 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: Our models support the contribution of biological and multiple environmental factors in the complex prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months. SN - 1934-8800 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29149620/The_dopamine_D4_receptor_gene_birth_weight_maternal_depression_maternal_attention_and_the_prediction_of_disorganized_attachment_at_36_months_of_age:_A_prospective_gene×environment_analysis_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0163-6383(17)30084-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -