[Protective effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on the kidney of paraquat poisoning rats by Nrf2-ARE signal pathway].Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2017 Nov; 29(11):961-966.ZW
To investigate the protective effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) on renal injury poisoned by paraquat (PQ) in rats and its mechanism.
Twenty-four healthy clean male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal saline (NS) control group, 5-ASA control group, PQ model group and 5-ASA treatment group, with 6 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 2% PQ solution 20 mg/kg, and the same volume of NS was given in NS control group and 5-ASA control group. Two hours later, the rats in 5-ASA control group and 5-ASA treatment group were intragastrically administered with 1 mL 5-ASA (75 mg/kg) for one time after NS or PQ administration, and those in NS control group and PQ model group were administered with 1 mL double distilled water. Behavioral changes were observed in rats. Then the rats were sacrificed at 24 hours after starting of the experiment for cardiac blood harvest which could be used to detect the biomarkers of renal injury and oxidative stress parameters. The kidney tissue was collected, and the hematein-eosin (HE) staining was conducted for observation of pathological changes in renal tissue, and protein expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by Western Blot.
At 30 minutes after PQ poisoning, rats appeared obvious poisoning symptoms and signs. Twenty-four hours after PQ poisoned, hemocoel of glomerular capillary, swelling of renal tubular epithelial cell and serious micronecrosis appeared under the light microscope. Compared with NS control group, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly abnormal in PQ model group, and Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expressions in renal tissue were increased. After administration of 5-ASA, the morphological changes and pathological damage were mitigated as compared with those of PQ model group, the levels of BUN, SCr and MDA were decreased significantly [BUN (mmol/L): 11.98±1.81 vs. 18.56±2.32, SCr (μmol/L): 30.67±2.31 vs. 43.67±9.02, MDA (μmol/L): 5.28±0.43 vs. 6.81±1.00], and the SOD activity, CAT and GSH contents were significantly increased [SOD (kU/L): 125.49±7.63 vs. 106.76±7.94, CAT (ng/L): 30.68±3.51 vs. 23.05±1.55, GSH (μmol/L): 3.81±0.44 vs. 3.14±0.17], while the protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were further increased [Nrf2 protein (gray value): 0.76±0.04 vs. 0.52±0.03, HO-1 protein (gray value): 0.56±0.02 vs. 0.31±0.02, all P < 0.05]. Only 5-ASA intervention had no significant effect on behavior, pathology, renal injury markers and oxidative stress parameters, but it could induce the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 protein in renal tissue, which were significantly higher than those of NS control group [Nrf2 protein (gray value): 0.78±0.02 vs. 0.41±0.04, HO-1 protein (gray value): 0.51±0.03 vs. 0.23±0.01, both P < 0.01].
5-ASA attenuates the damage of acute renal injury (AKI) caused by PQ, which mechanism may be related with the activation of Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway.