Effect of dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis on Atrazine-induced oxidative stress- mediated hepatic damage and inflammation in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Mar; 149:135-142.EE
The present study evaluated the potential modulatory effect(s) of dietary supplementation with Spirulina platensis (SP) on Atrazine (ATZ)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Common carp was exposed to ATZ (428μg/L) and SP (1%), either alone or in combination, for 40 days. Subsequently, the treatment groups were evaluated for ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatic damage and the potential antioxidant effect(s) of SP supplementation. The results indicated that ATZ exposure led to a significant increase in the oxidative stress as suggested by the increased levels of lipid and DNA oxidative damage markers and the significant decline of antioxidant status biomarkers. Further, a real-time PCR analysis of the liver tissues revealed that the ATZ exposure resulted in the significant modulation of the mRNA expression of cytokines involved in the inflammatory response pathway in the liver, such as Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10. The expression of IL-1β mRNA was up-regulated while that of IL-10 mRNA was down-regulated. The group subjected to supplementation with SP exhibited a significant decrease in ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxic and inflammatory responses; however, these did not attain the levels of the control group. Owing to its ability for protecting against ATZ-induced oxidative stress-mediated hepatic damage in carps, SP could be a potentially effective and promising candidate as a feed additive for carps in aquaculture.