Antibacterial and Antioxidant Metabolites of Diaporthe spp. Isolated from Flowers of Melodorum fruticosum.Curr Microbiol. 2018 Apr; 75(4):476-483.CM
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus. Forty-three fungal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one tested pathogen. The antioxidant properties of all extracts were also investigated by DPPH scavenging assay. Sixteen extracts displayed high antioxidant capacity (IC50 ranging from 10 to 50 µg/mL) when compared to the gallic acid and trolox standards (IC50 of 12.46 and 2.55 µg/mL, respectively). The crude extracts of Diaporthe sp. MFLUCC16-0682 and Diaporthe sp. MFLUCC16-0693 exhibited notable antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Analysis of chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry suggested that the observed antibacterial activity of the two Diaporthe spp. was possibly due to the presence of abienol, 4-methoxy stilbene, phenethyl cinnamate and 2Z,6Z-farnesal, while their potential antioxidant activity could be attributed to phenolic compounds, such as benzene acetaldehyde, benzyl benzoate, salicylaldehyde, benzoin and benzyl cinnamate. The results suggest that the genus Diaporthe is a potential source of metabolites that can be used in a variety of applications.