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Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions.
Nutrients. 2017 Nov 22; 9(11)N

Abstract

Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. yoona.kim@unisa.edu.au.School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. jennifer.keogh@unisa.edu.au.School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, General Post Office Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. peter.clifton@unisa.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29165404

Citation

Kim, Yoona, et al. "Benefits of Nut Consumption On Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions." Nutrients, vol. 9, no. 11, 2017.
Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients. 2017;9(11).
Kim, Y., Keogh, J. B., & Clifton, P. M. (2017). Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111271
Kim Y, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Benefits of Nut Consumption On Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 22;9(11) PubMed PMID: 29165404.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions. AU - Kim,Yoona, AU - Keogh,Jennifer B, AU - Clifton,Peter M, Y1 - 2017/11/22/ PY - 2017/09/15/received PY - 2017/11/02/revised PY - 2017/11/14/accepted PY - 2017/11/23/entrez PY - 2017/11/23/pubmed PY - 2018/7/25/medline KW - cardiovascular disease KW - nuts KW - type 2 diabetes mellitus JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 9 IS - 11 N2 - Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29165404/Benefits_of_Nut_Consumption_on_Insulin_Resistance_and_Cardiovascular_Risk_Factors:_Multiple_Potential_Mechanisms_of_Actions_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu9111271 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -