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Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017 Dec; 27(12):1037-1052.NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases.

METHODS AND RESULTS

We conducted a Pubmed search, up to September, 2015, for studies on key nutrients (proteins, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids) in vegetarian diets. From 295 eligible publications the following emerged: Vegetarians should be encouraged to supplement their diets with a reliable source of vitamin B12 (vitamin-fortified foods or supplements). Since the plant protein digestibility is lower than that of animal proteins it may be appropriate for vegetarians to consume more proteins than recommended for the general population. Vegetarians should also be encouraged to habitually consume good sources of calcium, iron and zinc - particularly vegetables that are low in oxalate and phytate (e.g. Brassicaceae), nuts and seeds, and calcium-rich mineral water. Calcium, iron, and zinc bioavailability can be improved by soaking, germination, and sour-dough leavening that lower the phytate content of pulses and cereals. Vegetarians can ensure good n-3 fatty acid status by habitually consuming good sources of a-linolenic acid (walnuts, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and their oils) and limiting linoleic acid intake (corn and sunflower oils).

CONCLUSIONS

Well-planned vegetarian diets that include a wide variety of plant foods, and a reliable source of vitamin B12, provide adequate nutrient intake. Government agencies and health/nutrition organizations should provide more educational resources to help Italians consume nutritionally adequate vegetarian diets.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.Primary Treatment Unit, Northern Health and Social Security District 9, Treviso, Italy.Independent Researcher, Italy.Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Division of Human Nutrition, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.Nutrition Unit, Hygiene, Food and Nutrition Services, Department of Public Health, Local Health Unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy.Independent Researcher, Italy.Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.Independent Researcher, Italy.Research Centre for Food and Nutrition, Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Rome, Italy.Independent Researcher, Italy.Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: sabina.sieri@istitutotumori.mi.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Practice Guideline
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29174030

Citation

Agnoli, C, et al. "Position Paper On Vegetarian Diets From the Working Group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 27, no. 12, 2017, pp. 1037-1052.
Agnoli C, Baroni L, Bertini I, et al. Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(12):1037-1052.
Agnoli, C., Baroni, L., Bertini, I., Ciappellano, S., Fabbri, A., Papa, M., Pellegrini, N., Sbarbati, R., Scarino, M. L., Siani, V., & Sieri, S. (2017). Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 27(12), 1037-1052. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2017.10.020
Agnoli C, et al. Position Paper On Vegetarian Diets From the Working Group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;27(12):1037-1052. PubMed PMID: 29174030.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Position paper on vegetarian diets from the working group of the Italian Society of Human Nutrition. AU - Agnoli,C, AU - Baroni,L, AU - Bertini,I, AU - Ciappellano,S, AU - Fabbri,A, AU - Papa,M, AU - Pellegrini,N, AU - Sbarbati,R, AU - Scarino,M L, AU - Siani,V, AU - Sieri,S, Y1 - 2017/10/31/ PY - 2017/06/26/received PY - 2017/09/28/revised PY - 2017/10/23/accepted PY - 2017/11/28/pubmed PY - 2017/12/19/medline PY - 2017/11/28/entrez KW - Bioavailability KW - Nutritional status KW - Vegan diet KW - Vegetarian diet SP - 1037 EP - 1052 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 27 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Interest in vegetarian diets is growing in Italy and elsewhere, as government agencies and health/nutrition organizations are emphasizing that regular consumption of plant foods may provide health benefits and help prevent certain diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a Pubmed search, up to September, 2015, for studies on key nutrients (proteins, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, and n-3 fatty acids) in vegetarian diets. From 295 eligible publications the following emerged: Vegetarians should be encouraged to supplement their diets with a reliable source of vitamin B12 (vitamin-fortified foods or supplements). Since the plant protein digestibility is lower than that of animal proteins it may be appropriate for vegetarians to consume more proteins than recommended for the general population. Vegetarians should also be encouraged to habitually consume good sources of calcium, iron and zinc - particularly vegetables that are low in oxalate and phytate (e.g. Brassicaceae), nuts and seeds, and calcium-rich mineral water. Calcium, iron, and zinc bioavailability can be improved by soaking, germination, and sour-dough leavening that lower the phytate content of pulses and cereals. Vegetarians can ensure good n-3 fatty acid status by habitually consuming good sources of a-linolenic acid (walnuts, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and their oils) and limiting linoleic acid intake (corn and sunflower oils). CONCLUSIONS: Well-planned vegetarian diets that include a wide variety of plant foods, and a reliable source of vitamin B12, provide adequate nutrient intake. Government agencies and health/nutrition organizations should provide more educational resources to help Italians consume nutritionally adequate vegetarian diets. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29174030/Position_paper_on_vegetarian_diets_from_the_working_group_of_the_Italian_Society_of_Human_Nutrition_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -