The EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) procedure - from the paediatric ENT perspective.Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2018 Oct; 38(5):480-484.AO
The main principle of the EXIT procedure is to maintain uteroplacental circulation with neonatal anaesthesia by controlled uterine hypotonia. This enables securing the foetal airways and decompress or resect large neck and mediastinal foetal masses. The authors present their experience with use of the EXIT procedure in 7 foetuses in whom evaluation and management of the airways were performed. In 4 patients, the neck mass was surgically removed in the neonatal period, in 1 the propranolol treatment was introduced. Two newborns died shortly after the EXIT procedure. The EXIT procedure allows the paediatric otolaryngologist to provide airway patency of newborns during delivery. Both ultrasound and MR imaging are crucial in the prenatal assessment of foetal head and neck masses. Their application in the evaluation of any foetal anomaly is essential for proper prognosis and treatment. Maternal monitoring for complications such as polyhydramnios and preterm labour are important in planning and desirability of the EXIT procedure.