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Early outcomes after intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis.
J Neurosurg. 2018 10; 129(4):1056-1062.JN

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes demyelination and axonal loss. Walking difficulties are a common and debilitating symptom of MS; they are usually caused by spastic paresis of the lower extremities. Although intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment for spasticity in MS, there is limited published evidence regarding its effects on ambulation. The goal of this study was to characterize ITB therapy outcomes in ambulatory patients with MS.

METHODS

Data from 47 ambulatory patients with MS who received ITB therapy were analyzed retrospectively. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth Scale, Spasm Frequency Scale, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and the Timed 25-Foot Walk. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for changes in outcome measures between baseline and posttreatment (6 months and 1 year). Significance was set at p < 0.05. Descriptive data are expressed as the mean ± SD, and results of the repeated-measures ANOVA tests and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test are expressed as the mean ± SEM.

RESULTS

There was a statistically significant reduction in the following variables: 1) aggregate lower-extremity Modified Ashworth Scale scores (from 14.8 ± 1.0 before ITB therapy to 5.8 ± 0.8 at 6 months posttreatment and 6.4 ± 0.9 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 2) Numeric Pain Rating Scale scores (4.4 ± 0.5 before ITB, 2.8 ± 0.5 at 6 months, and 2.4 ± 0.4 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 3) spasm frequency (45.7% of the patients reported a spasm frequency of ≥ 1 event per hour before ITB therapy, whereas 15.6% and 4.3% of the patients reported the same at 6 months and 1 year posttreatment, respectively [p < 0.05]); and 4) the number of oral medications taken for spasticity (p < 0.05). Of the 47 patients, 34 remained ambulatory at 6 months, and 32 at 1 year posttreatment. There was no statistically significant change in performance on the Timed 25-Foot Walk test over time for those patients who remained ambulatory.

CONCLUSIONS

In this retrospective study, the authors found that ITB therapy is effective in reducing spasticity and related symptoms in ambulatory patients with MS. Because the use of ITB therapy is increasing in ambulatory patients with MS, randomized, prospective studies are important to help provide a more useful characterization of the effects of ITB therapy on ambulation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic.2Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.3School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.2Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.2Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University.1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic. 4Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic; and.1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic. 4Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic; and.1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic. 4Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic; and.4Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic; and. 5Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29192855

Citation

Lee, Bryan S., et al. "Early Outcomes After Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Ambulatory Patients With Multiple Sclerosis." Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 129, no. 4, 2018, pp. 1056-1062.
Lee BS, Jones J, Lang M, et al. Early outcomes after intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurosurg. 2018;129(4):1056-1062.
Lee, B. S., Jones, J., Lang, M., Achey, R., Dai, L., Lobel, D. A., Nagel, S. J., Machado, A. G., & Bethoux, F. (2018). Early outcomes after intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurosurgery, 129(4), 1056-1062. https://doi.org/10.3171/2017.5.JNS162925
Lee BS, et al. Early Outcomes After Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy in Ambulatory Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. J Neurosurg. 2018;129(4):1056-1062. PubMed PMID: 29192855.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Early outcomes after intrathecal baclofen therapy in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. AU - Lee,Bryan S, AU - Jones,Jaes, AU - Lang,Min, AU - Achey,Rebecca, AU - Dai,Lu, AU - Lobel,Darlene A, AU - Nagel,Sean J, AU - Machado,Andre G, AU - Bethoux,Francois, Y1 - 2017/12/01/ PY - 2017/12/2/pubmed PY - 2019/10/23/medline PY - 2017/12/2/entrez KW - ITB = intrathecal baclofen KW - MAS = Modified Ashworth Scale KW - MS = multiple sclerosis KW - NARCOMS = North American Research Committee on MS KW - NPRS = Numeric Pain Rating Scale KW - SFS = Spasm Frequency Scale KW - T25FW = Timed 25-Foot Walk KW - ambulation KW - functional neurosurgery KW - intrathecal baclofen KW - multiple sclerosis KW - spasticity SP - 1056 EP - 1062 JF - Journal of neurosurgery JO - J. Neurosurg. VL - 129 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes demyelination and axonal loss. Walking difficulties are a common and debilitating symptom of MS; they are usually caused by spastic paresis of the lower extremities. Although intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment for spasticity in MS, there is limited published evidence regarding its effects on ambulation. The goal of this study was to characterize ITB therapy outcomes in ambulatory patients with MS. METHODS: Data from 47 ambulatory patients with MS who received ITB therapy were analyzed retrospectively. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth Scale, Spasm Frequency Scale, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, and the Timed 25-Foot Walk. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for changes in outcome measures between baseline and posttreatment (6 months and 1 year). Significance was set at p < 0.05. Descriptive data are expressed as the mean ± SD, and results of the repeated-measures ANOVA tests and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test are expressed as the mean ± SEM. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction in the following variables: 1) aggregate lower-extremity Modified Ashworth Scale scores (from 14.8 ± 1.0 before ITB therapy to 5.8 ± 0.8 at 6 months posttreatment and 6.4 ± 0.9 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 2) Numeric Pain Rating Scale scores (4.4 ± 0.5 before ITB, 2.8 ± 0.5 at 6 months, and 2.4 ± 0.4 at 1 year [p < 0.05]); 3) spasm frequency (45.7% of the patients reported a spasm frequency of ≥ 1 event per hour before ITB therapy, whereas 15.6% and 4.3% of the patients reported the same at 6 months and 1 year posttreatment, respectively [p < 0.05]); and 4) the number of oral medications taken for spasticity (p < 0.05). Of the 47 patients, 34 remained ambulatory at 6 months, and 32 at 1 year posttreatment. There was no statistically significant change in performance on the Timed 25-Foot Walk test over time for those patients who remained ambulatory. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, the authors found that ITB therapy is effective in reducing spasticity and related symptoms in ambulatory patients with MS. Because the use of ITB therapy is increasing in ambulatory patients with MS, randomized, prospective studies are important to help provide a more useful characterization of the effects of ITB therapy on ambulation. SN - 1933-0693 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29192855/Early_outcomes_after_intrathecal_baclofen_therapy_in_ambulatory_patients_with_multiple_sclerosis_ L2 - https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/2017.5.JNS162925 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -