Mixture Design Applied to the Development of Chickpea-Based Gluten-Free Bread with Attractive Technological, Sensory, and Nutritional Quality.J Food Sci. 2018 Jan; 83(1):188-197.JF
The aim of the study was utilized chickpea to create appealing, nutritious, and palatable gluten-free bread (GFB). The performance of chickpea flour (CF) in single and composite GFB formulations was studied with a mixture design and response surface methodology. Six simplex-centroid designs for 3 ingredients were used to identify the ideal proportions of CF in various blends with cassava starch (CS), maize starch (MS), potato starch (PS), and rice flour (RF) achieving the best physical properties. For each design, 3 single, 3 binary, and 3 ternary formulations were prepared. The results showed that CF alone is suitable for bread production, resulting in GFB with higher volume and crumb firmness and lower crumb moisture than single formulations of other raw materials. However, the interactions between CF and PS or CS enhanced the loaf volume and decreased the crumb firmness values. The GFB prepared with only CF was accepted (overall acceptability score of 7.1- on a 10-cm scale). Nevertheless, the composite formulations prepared with CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 (flour basis) received overall acceptability scores of 8.2, like those of their white GFB, prepared with RF50:PS50 blend (flour basis), and wheat bread counterparts, used as positive controls. Compared to white GFB, both composite formulations presented nearly a twofold increase in ash and protein contents and a threefold increase in total fiber content. These results show that blends of CF75:PS25 or CF75:CS25 can be used to develop GFB with a good physical and sensory properties, as well as an enhanced nutritional composition.
Gluten-free bread (GFB) made with 75% chickpea flour (CF) blend with 25% potato or cassava starch showed improved total minerals, protein and dietary fiber content and bread quality characteristics. Therefore, CF is a valuable ingredient for food technologists in manufacturing better-tasting and healthy GFB, which is important for consumers with gluten-related disorders since GFB often lack nutrition content, appearance, texture, and mouthfeel.