Antimicrobial therapy of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children.Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 01; 16(1):23-34.ER
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adolescents. Macrolides are recommended as the first-line therapy however, macrolide resistance rates in M. pneumoniae among children have been increasing substantially. Areas covered: This review focused on clinical characteristics and treatment of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children. Expert commentary: Antibiotic choice should be based on in vitro activity, clinical efficacy and in consideration of potential adverse events. Macrolide resistance did not contribute to the clinical severity of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, but resistance may be an aggravating factor. Antibiotics may not be required for treatment in mild cases due to the self-resolving nature of M. pneumonia infection, regardless of macrolide resistance. In contrast, antibiotic treatment of severe cases of M. pneumoniae pneumonia is complicated. The clinical benefit of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones has been shown in terms of shortening duration of symptoms and rapid defervescence in some reports. However, due to safety concerns regarding these two alternative antibiotics, clinicians should weigh the risks and benefits when choosing treatment options. Alternative antibiotics may be considered when patients remain febrile or when chest x-rays show deterioration at least 48-72 hours after macrolide treatment.