Proteomics and antivenomics of Echis carinatus carinatus venom: Correlation with pharmacological properties and pathophysiology of envenomation.Sci Rep. 2017 12 07; 7(1):17119.SR
The proteome composition of Echis carinatus carinatus venom (ECV) from India was studied for the first time by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 90, 47, and 22 distinct enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins belonging to 15, 10, and 6 snake venom protein families were identified in ECV by searching the ESI-LC-MS/MS data against non-redundant protein databases of Viperidae (taxid 8689), Echis (taxid 8699) and Echis carinatus (taxid 40353), respectively. However, analysis of MS/MS data against the Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly sequences (87 entries) of conger E. coloratus identified only 14 proteins in ECV. Snake venom metalloproteases and snaclecs, the most abundant enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins, respectively in ECV account for defibrinogenation and the strong in vitro pro-coagulant activity. Further, glutaminyl cyclase, aspartic protease, aminopeptidase, phospholipase B, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nerve growth factor were reported for the first time in ECV. The proteome composition of ECV was well correlated with its biochemical and pharmacological properties and clinical manifestations observed in Echis envenomed patients. Neutralization of enzymes and pharmacological properties of ECV, and immuno-cross-reactivity studies unequivocally point to the poor recognition of <20 kDa ECV proteins, such as PLA2, subunits of snaclec, and disintegrin by commercial polyvalent antivenom.