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Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation).

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The WISE study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) was a prospective cohort study of 936 clinically stable symptomatic women who underwent coronary angiography to evaluate symptoms and signs of ischemia. Long-term mortality data for such women are limited.

METHODS AND RESULTS

Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as ≥50% stenosis on angiography by core laboratory. We conducted a National Death Index search to assess the mortality of women who were alive at their final WISE contact date. Death certificates were obtained. All deaths were adjudicated as cardiovascular or noncardiovascular by a panel of WISE cardiologists masked to angiographic data. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify significant independent predictors of mortality. At baseline, mean age was 58±12 years; 176 (19%) were non-white, primarily black; 25% had a history of diabetes mellitus, 59% hypertension, 55% dyslipidemia, and 59% had a body mass index ≥30. During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range, 0.2-11.5 years), a total of 184 (20%) died. Of these, 115 (62%) were cardiovascular deaths; 31% of all cardiovascular deaths occurred in women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis). Independent predictors of mortality were obstructive CAD, age, baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, history of smoking, elevated triglycerides, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

CONCLUSIONS

Among women referred for coronary angiography for signs and symptoms of ischemia, 1 in 5 died from predominantly cardiac pathogeneses within 9 years of angiographic evaluation. A majority of the factors contributing to the risk of death seem to be modifiable by existing therapies. Of note, 1 in 3 of the deaths in this cohort occurred in women without obstructive CAD, a condition often considered benign and without guideline-recommended treatments. Clinical trials are needed to provide treatment guidance for the group without obstructive CAD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.). KenkreT@edc.pitt.edu.From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).From the Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, PA (T.S.K., B.D.J., O.C.M., S.F.K.); Barbra Streisand Women's Heart Center, Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Los Angeles, CA (P.M., C.N.B.M.); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (E.M.H., C.J.P.); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (D.V.T.); Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (O.C.M.); and Division of Cardiovascular Disease, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham (W.J.R.).

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29217675

Citation

Kenkre, Tanya S., et al. "Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation)." Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, vol. 10, no. 12, 2017.
Kenkre TS, Malhotra P, Johnson BD, et al. Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10(12).
Kenkre, T. S., Malhotra, P., Johnson, B. D., Handberg, E. M., Thompson, D. V., Marroquin, O. C., ... Kelsey, S. F. (2017). Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation). Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 10(12), doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.116.003863.
Kenkre TS, et al. Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10(12) PubMed PMID: 29217675.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ten-Year Mortality in the WISE Study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation). AU - Kenkre,Tanya S, AU - Malhotra,Pankaj, AU - Johnson,B Delia, AU - Handberg,Eileen M, AU - Thompson,Diane V, AU - Marroquin,Oscar C, AU - Rogers,William J, AU - Pepine,Carl J, AU - Bairey Merz,C Noel, AU - Kelsey,Sheryl F, PY - 2017/04/21/received PY - 2017/09/18/accepted PY - 2017/12/9/entrez PY - 2017/12/9/pubmed PY - 2018/7/26/medline KW - acute coronary syndrome KW - coronary artery disease KW - ischemia KW - mortality KW - women JF - Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes JO - Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes VL - 10 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: The WISE study (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) was a prospective cohort study of 936 clinically stable symptomatic women who underwent coronary angiography to evaluate symptoms and signs of ischemia. Long-term mortality data for such women are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as ≥50% stenosis on angiography by core laboratory. We conducted a National Death Index search to assess the mortality of women who were alive at their final WISE contact date. Death certificates were obtained. All deaths were adjudicated as cardiovascular or noncardiovascular by a panel of WISE cardiologists masked to angiographic data. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify significant independent predictors of mortality. At baseline, mean age was 58±12 years; 176 (19%) were non-white, primarily black; 25% had a history of diabetes mellitus, 59% hypertension, 55% dyslipidemia, and 59% had a body mass index ≥30. During a median follow-up of 9.5 years (range, 0.2-11.5 years), a total of 184 (20%) died. Of these, 115 (62%) were cardiovascular deaths; 31% of all cardiovascular deaths occurred in women without obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis). Independent predictors of mortality were obstructive CAD, age, baseline systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, history of smoking, elevated triglycerides, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS: Among women referred for coronary angiography for signs and symptoms of ischemia, 1 in 5 died from predominantly cardiac pathogeneses within 9 years of angiographic evaluation. A majority of the factors contributing to the risk of death seem to be modifiable by existing therapies. Of note, 1 in 3 of the deaths in this cohort occurred in women without obstructive CAD, a condition often considered benign and without guideline-recommended treatments. Clinical trials are needed to provide treatment guidance for the group without obstructive CAD. SN - 1941-7705 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29217675/Ten_Year_Mortality_in_the_WISE_Study__Women's_Ischemia_Syndrome_Evaluation__ L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.116.003863?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -