Oxidation of iopamidol with ferrate (Fe(VI)): Kinetics and formation of toxic iodinated disinfection by-products.Water Res. 2018 03 01; 130:200-207.WR
Presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICMs) in source water is of high concern, because of their potential to form highly toxic iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs). This study investigated kinetics, mechanisms and products for oxidation of one ICMs, iopamidol (IPM) by ferrate (Fe(VI)). The obtained apparent second-order rate constants for oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) ranged from 0.7 M-1 s-1 to 74.6 M-1 s-1 at pH 6.0-10.0, which were highly dependent on pH. It was found that the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) led to the formation of highly toxic I-DBPs. Iodoform (IF), iodoacetic acid and triiodoacetic acid formations were observed during the oxidation and IF dominated the formed I-DBPs. The formation of I-DBPs was also governed by pH and the maximum formation of I-DBPs occurred at pH 9.0. Transformation pathways of IPM by Fe(VI) oxidation were speculated to proceed through deiodination, amide hydrolysis and oxidation of amine reactions. The deiodination reaction during the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) contributed to the formation of I-DBPs. The formation of I-DBPs during the oxidation of IPM by Fe(VI) was significantly higher than those of iohexol, diatrizoate and iopromide, which was consistent with the lowest molecular orbital energy gap of IPM. Although Fe(VI) is considered as a green oxidant, the formation of highly toxic I-DBPs during the oxidation of IPM should receive great attention.