[Strategies for the prevention and control of bleeding due to vascular injury in thoracoscopic lung surgery].Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017 Dec 01; 55(12):898-902.ZW
The technique of thoracoscopic lung surgery has gradually matured. Nowadays, thoracoscope is recommended as the most preferred approach for surgical treatment of early stage non-small cell lung cancer in different guidelines. However, there are still some cases of accidential major bleeding due to vascular injury during thoracoscopic lung surgery. The wall of the hilum vessels is relatively thin. These vessels often involve a great portion of the cardiac output blood flow. Once the injury happened, the emergent condition may be life-threatening due to massive blood loss. Therefore, this became an important factor which hindered the development of thoracoscopic lung surgery. In this review, details of the vascular injury in thoracoscopic lung surgery were summarized, including the incidence of vascular injury, commonly injured sites and reasons of the injuries. Among all the cases of thoracoscopic major pulmonary resection, 2.9% to 9.2% may suffer from vascular injury during the operation. The most commonly injuried sites are pulmonary artery and the branches, and this is also the most critical situation during thoracoscopic lung surgery. Hilum adhesion is the most important risk factor for vascular injury. On the one hand, the suction-compressing angiorrhaphy technique was developed for bleeding control and angioplasty. On the other hand, the strategies like pre-control of the pulmonary, cut the bronchus in advance, and fire the bronchus and pulmonary artery together may decrease the incidence of vascular injury in patients with risk factors.