High-throughput RNA sequencing reveals distinct gene signatures in active IgG4-related disease.Sci Rep 2017; 7(1):17567SR
We aimed to characterize the molecular differences and effects from prednisone treatment among IgG4-related disease with salivary gland lesions (RD-SG), without SG lesions (RD-nonSG), and IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF). RNA sequencing was conducted on blood from 25 RD-SG, 11 RD-nonSG, 3 RF and 10 control subjects. Among these, 8 RD-nonSG and 12 RD-SG patients were subjected to treatment with prednisone and/or glucocorticoid-sparing agents. Six RD patients had a longitudinal time point. The mRNA levels of IgG4 and IgE, genes specific for Th2 cells, eosinophils, and neutrophils were over-expressed in RD-SG and RD-nonSG. A B-cell signature was suppressed in patients group versus controls, while Th1, Th2, Treg, and eosinophil gene signatures were increased in patients without treatment. Interestingly, Tfh genes and B cell signature were decreased at flare disease state. Prednisone treatment led to increased neutrophil, but decreased Treg signatures. Serum IgG4 levels correlated with the eosinophil and neutrophil gene signatures in RD-SG patients, and with a B cell signature in only RD-nonSG patients. IgG4, IgE, and cell-specific signatures are regulated in patients, suggesting the imbalance of immune and inflammatory cells in IgG4-related disease. Prednisone treatment selectively modulates Treg, eosinophil, and neutrophil signatures.