Sulfuretin Attenuates MPP⁺-Induced Neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK Signaling Pathways.Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Dec 19; 18(12)IJ
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Sulfuretin is a potent antioxidant that is reported to be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the protective effect of sulfuretin against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP⁺)-induced cell model of PD in SH-SY5Y cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Sulfuretin significantly decreased MPP⁺-induced apoptotic cell death, accompanied by a reduction in caspase 3 activity and polyADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Furthermore, it attenuated MPP⁺-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Consistently, sulfuretin decreased p53 expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, sulfuretin significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, and ERK. Pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K/Akt and ERK abolished the cytoprotective effects of sulfuretin against MPP⁺. An inhibitor of GSK3β mimicked sulfuretin-induced protection against MPP⁺. Taken together, these results suggest that sulfuretin significantly attenuates MPP⁺-induced neurotoxicity through Akt/GSK3β and ERK signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that sulfuretin might be one of the potential candidates for the treatment of PD.