Characterization of Isolates Associated with Emergence of OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Croatia.Microb Drug Resist 2018; 24(7):973-979MD
Here, we report a retrospective study conducted to elucidate emergence, epidemiology, and molecular mechanisms of resistance underlying the early spread of OXA-48 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia. Retrospective screening for OXA-48 producers was performed on a collection of 296 nonrepetitive, carbapenem-nonsusceptible enterobacterial isolates collected from January 2011 to December 2012 from 40 participating centers in Croatia. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and production of carbapenemases were assessed phenotypically. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing were used for epidemiological analysis. Resistance genes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Plasmid localization of blaOXA-48 in isolates and transconjugants was investigated by S1-PFGE and Southern hybridization. PCR mapping was used for identification of genetic platform surrounding blaOXA-48. Out of 296 carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates, blaOXA-48 gene was detected in 12 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. All OXA-48-producing isolates showed varying resistance to carbapenems and 11 were multidrug resistant. All coproduced additional beta-lactamases, including CTX-M-15, which was detected in eight isolates. Isolates were delineated in five clonal types by PFGE corresponding to five sequence types (STs) assigned ST15, ST16, ST37, ST528, and ST1418. All OXA-48 isolates conjugated successfully and other resistance determinants were not cotransferred. blaOXA-48 was carried on a ∼60 kb IncL/M plasmid and was detected within Tn1999.2 composite transposon. OXA-48, a class D carbapenemase, is emerging as a potentially significant contributor among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Croatia, alongside class A and B carbapenemases. Polyclonal genetic background of K. pneumoniae isolates carrying ∼60 kb incL/M plasmid indicates that dissemination of the blaOXA48 gene is not driven exclusively by the spread of a single clone.