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Microbiota, a key player in alcoholic liver disease.
Clin Mol Hepatol 2018; 24(2):100-107CM

Abstract

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Only 20% of heavy alcohol consumers develop alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The intestinal microbiota (IM) has been recently identified as a key player in the severity of liver injury in ALD. Common features of ALD include a decrease of gut epithelial tight junction protein expression, mucin production, and antimicrobial peptide levels. This disruption of the gut barrier, which is a prerequisite for ALD, leads to the passage of bacterial products into the blood stream (endotoxemia). Moreover, metabolites produced by bacteria, such as short chain fatty acids, volatile organic compounds (VOS), and bile acids (BA), are involved in ALD pathology. Probiotic treatment, IM transplantation, or the consumption of dietary fiber, such as pectin, which all alter the ratio of bacterial species, have been shown to improve liver injury in animal models of ALD and to be associated with an improvement in gut barrier function. Although the connections between the microbiota and the host in ALD are well established, the underlying mechanisms are still an active area of research. Targeting the microbiome through the use of prebiotic, probiotic, and postbiotic modalities could be an attractive new approach to manage ALD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

INSERM UMR996, Inflammation, Chemokines, and Immunopathology, Clamart, France. Univ Paris-Sud, Univ Paris-Saclay, DHU Hepatinov, Labex Lermit, CHU Bicêtre, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.INSERM UMR996, Inflammation, Chemokines, and Immunopathology, Clamart, France. Univ Paris-Sud, Univ Paris-Saclay, DHU Hepatinov, Labex Lermit, CHU Bicêtre, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29268595

Citation

Cassard, Anne-Marie, and Dragos Ciocan. "Microbiota, a Key Player in Alcoholic Liver Disease." Clinical and Molecular Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 2, 2018, pp. 100-107.
Cassard AM, Ciocan D. Microbiota, a key player in alcoholic liver disease. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2018;24(2):100-107.
Cassard, A. M., & Ciocan, D. (2018). Microbiota, a key player in alcoholic liver disease. Clinical and Molecular Hepatology, 24(2), pp. 100-107. doi:10.3350/cmh.2017.0067.
Cassard AM, Ciocan D. Microbiota, a Key Player in Alcoholic Liver Disease. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2018;24(2):100-107. PubMed PMID: 29268595.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Microbiota, a key player in alcoholic liver disease. AU - Cassard,Anne-Marie, AU - Ciocan,Dragos, Y1 - 2017/12/22/ PY - 2017/11/10/received PY - 2017/11/22/accepted PY - 2017/12/23/pubmed PY - 2019/4/4/medline PY - 2017/12/23/entrez KW - Fiber KW - Intestinal microbiota KW - Pectin KW - Probiotics KW - Alcoholic liver disease SP - 100 EP - 107 JF - Clinical and molecular hepatology JO - Clin Mol Hepatol VL - 24 IS - 2 N2 - Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Only 20% of heavy alcohol consumers develop alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The intestinal microbiota (IM) has been recently identified as a key player in the severity of liver injury in ALD. Common features of ALD include a decrease of gut epithelial tight junction protein expression, mucin production, and antimicrobial peptide levels. This disruption of the gut barrier, which is a prerequisite for ALD, leads to the passage of bacterial products into the blood stream (endotoxemia). Moreover, metabolites produced by bacteria, such as short chain fatty acids, volatile organic compounds (VOS), and bile acids (BA), are involved in ALD pathology. Probiotic treatment, IM transplantation, or the consumption of dietary fiber, such as pectin, which all alter the ratio of bacterial species, have been shown to improve liver injury in animal models of ALD and to be associated with an improvement in gut barrier function. Although the connections between the microbiota and the host in ALD are well established, the underlying mechanisms are still an active area of research. Targeting the microbiome through the use of prebiotic, probiotic, and postbiotic modalities could be an attractive new approach to manage ALD. SN - 2287-285X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29268595/Microbiota_a_key_player_in_alcoholic_liver_disease_ L2 - http://e-cmh.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.3350/cmh.2017.0067 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -