Combined effects of ZnO NPs and seawater acidification on the haemocyte parameters of thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.Sci Total Environ. 2018 May 15; 624:820-830.ST
Flow cytometry was used to investigate the immune parameters of haemocytes in thick-shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (0, 2.5, and 10mgl-1) at two pH levels (7.3 and 8.1) for 14days following a recovery period of 7days. ZnO NPs significantly affected all of the immune parameters throughout the experiment. At high ZnO NPs concentrations, total haemocyte counting, phagocytosis, esterase, and lysosomal content were significantly decreased whereas haemocyte mortality and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased. Although low pH also significantly influenced all of the immune parameters of the mussels, its effect was not as strong as that of ZnO NPs. Interactive effects were observed between pH and ZnO NPs in most haemocyte parameters during the exposure period. Although a slight recovery from the stress of ZnO NPs and pH was observed for all immune parameters, significant carry-over effects of low pH and ZnO NPs were still detected. This study revealed that high concentration of ZnO NPs and low pH exert negative and synergistic effects on mussels, and these effects remain even after the mussels are no longer exposed to such stressors.