Effect of ionic liquids with different cations and anions on photosystem and cell structure of Scenedesmus obliquus.Chemosphere. 2018 Mar; 195:437-447.C
The rapid increase in the production and practical application of ionic liquids (ILs) could pose potential threats to aquatic systems. In this study, we investigated the effects of four ILs with different cations and anions, including 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([HMIM]NO3), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([HMIM]Cl), N-hexyl-3-metylpyridinium chloride ([HMPy]Cl), and N-hexyl-3-metylpyridinium bromide ([HMPy]Br), on photosystem and cellular structure of Scenedesmus obliquus. The results indicated that ILs are phytotoxic to S. obliquus. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of photosynthetic system II (PSII), including minimal fluorescence yield (F0), potential efﬁciency of PSII (Fv/Fo), maximum quantum efﬁciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], and non-photochemical quenching coefficient without measuring F0' (NPQ), were all affected. This indicates that ILs could damage PSII, inhibit the primary reaction of photosynthesis, interdict the process of electron-transfer and lead to loss of heat-dissipating ability. ILs also increased cell membrane permeability of S. obliquus, influenced the cellular ultrastructure, changed the morphology of algae cells and destroyed the cell wall, cell membrane and organelles. The results indicated that imidazolium ILs had greater effect than pyridinium ILs, NO3--IL and Br--IL had greater effect than Cl--IL. To minimize threats to the environment, the structure of ILs should be taken into consideration.