Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: Review of technology, environment, and theory.Prev Med 2018; 111:451-458PM
The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 86 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies. Of the interventions described in the remaining 79 articles, 57 promoted only prevention behaviors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation protection), five promoted only detection (e.g., skin examinations), 10 promoted both prevention and detection, and seven focused on survivorship. Of the 79 non-dissemination studies, two-thirds used some type of technology (n=52; 65.8%). Technology specific to skin cancer was infrequently used: UVR photography was used in 15.2% of studies (n=12), reflectance spectroscopy was used in 12.7% (n=10), and dermatoscopes (n=1) and dosimeters (n=2) were each used in less than 3%. Ten studies (12.7%) targeted the built environment. Fifty-two (65.8%) of the studies included theory-based interventions. The most common theories were Social Cognitive Theory (n=20; 25.3%), Health Belief Model (n=17; 21.5%), and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action (n=12; 15.2%). Results suggest that skin cancer specific technology and environmental manipulations are underutilized in skin cancer behavioral interventions. We discuss implications of these results for researchers developing skin cancer behavioral interventions.