Psychiatric symptoms after acute respiratory distress syndrome: a 5-year longitudinal study.Intensive Care Med. 2018 01; 44(1):38-47.IC
We aimed to characterize anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over 5-year follow-up after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and determine risk factors for prolonged psychiatric morbidity.
This prospective cohort study enrolled patients from 13 medical and surgical intensive care units in four hospitals, with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months post-ARDS. Trained research staff administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (scores ≥ 8 on anxiety and depression subscales indicating substantial symptoms) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R, scores ≥ 1.6 indicating substantial PTSD symptoms) at each follow-up visit.
Of 196 consenting survivors, 186 (95%) completed HADS and IES-R assessments; 96 (52%) had any continuous or recurring (prolonged) symptoms, and 71 (38%), 59 (32%), and 43 (23%) had prolonged anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms, respectively (median total durations 33-39 months, 71-100% of observed follow-up time). Prolonged psychiatric symptoms tended to co-occur across domains; the most common morbidity pattern involved substantial symptoms in all three domains. Worse pre-ARDS mental health, including prior depression and psychological distress in the period immediately preceding ARDS, was strongly associated with prolonged post-ARDS psychiatric morbidity across symptom domains.
Clinically significant and long-lasting symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD are common in the first 5 years after ARDS. In-hospital screening of psychiatric history, including recent anxiety and depression symptoms, may be useful for long-term mental health treatment planning after ARDS.