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Dengue and yellow fever virus vectors: seasonal abundance, diversity and resting preferences in three Kenyan cities.
Parasit Vectors. 2017 12 29; 10(1):628.PV

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The transmission patterns of dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, especially in urban settings, are influenced by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito abundance and behavior. Despite recurrent dengue outbreaks on the Kenyan coast, these parameters remain poorly defined in this and other areas of contrasting dengue endemicity in Kenya. In assessing the transmission risk of DENV/YFV in three Kenyan cities, we determined adult abundance and resting habits of potential Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors in Kilifi (dengue-outbreak prone), and Nairobi and Kisumu (no dengue outbreaks reported). In addition, mosquito diversity, an important consideration for changing mosquito-borne disease dynamics, was compared.

METHODS

Between October 2014 and June 2016, host-seeking adult mosquitoes were sampled using CO2-baited BG-Sentinel traps (12 traps daily) placed in vegetation around homesteads, across study sites in the three major cities. Also, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were sampled using Prokopack aspirators. Three samplings, each of five consecutive days, were conducted during the long-rains, short-rains and dry season for each city. Inter-city and seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and diversity was evaluated using general linear models while mosquito-resting preference (indoors vs outdoors) was compared using Chi-square test.

RESULTS

Aedes aegypti, which comprised 60% (n = 7772) of the total 12,937 host-seeking mosquitoes collected, had comparable numbers in Kisumu (45.2%, n = 3513) and Kilifi (37.7%, n = 2932), both being significantly higher than Nairobi (17.1%, n = 1327). Aedes aegypti abundance was significantly lower in the short-rains and dry season relative to the long-rains (P < 0.0001). Aedes bromeliae, which occurred in low numbers, did not differ significantly between seasons or cities. Mosquito diversity was highest during the long-rains and in Nairobi. Only 10% (n = 43) of the 450 houses aspirated were found positive for resting Ae. aegypti, with overall low captures in all areas. Aedes aegypti densities were comparable indoors/outdoors in Kilifi; but with higher densities outdoors than indoors in Kisumu and Nairobi.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti near human habitations and dwellings, especially in Kilifi/Kisumu, is suggestive of increased DENV transmission risk due to higher prospects of human vector contact. Despite low abundance of Ae. bromeliae suggestive of low YFV transmission risk, its proximity to human habitation as well as the observed diversity of potential YFV vectors should be of public health concern and monitored closely for targeted control. The largely outdoor resting behavior for Ae. aegypti provides insights for targeted adult vector control especially during emergency outbreak situations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. sagha@icipe.org. Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag 20, Hatfield, 0083, South Africa. sagha@icipe.org.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Private Bag 20, Hatfield, 0083, South Africa.International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. Arbovirus/Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Laboratory, Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, P. O Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29284522

Citation

Agha, Sheila B., et al. "Dengue and Yellow Fever Virus Vectors: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity and Resting Preferences in Three Kenyan Cities." Parasites & Vectors, vol. 10, no. 1, 2017, p. 628.
Agha SB, Tchouassi DP, Bastos ADS, et al. Dengue and yellow fever virus vectors: seasonal abundance, diversity and resting preferences in three Kenyan cities. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10(1):628.
Agha, S. B., Tchouassi, D. P., Bastos, A. D. S., & Sang, R. (2017). Dengue and yellow fever virus vectors: seasonal abundance, diversity and resting preferences in three Kenyan cities. Parasites & Vectors, 10(1), 628. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2598-2
Agha SB, et al. Dengue and Yellow Fever Virus Vectors: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity and Resting Preferences in Three Kenyan Cities. Parasit Vectors. 2017 12 29;10(1):628. PubMed PMID: 29284522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dengue and yellow fever virus vectors: seasonal abundance, diversity and resting preferences in three Kenyan cities. AU - Agha,Sheila B, AU - Tchouassi,David P, AU - Bastos,Armanda D S, AU - Sang,Rosemary, Y1 - 2017/12/29/ PY - 2017/08/29/received PY - 2017/12/17/accepted PY - 2017/12/30/entrez PY - 2017/12/30/pubmed PY - 2018/7/22/medline KW - Aedes aegypti KW - Aedes bromeliae KW - Dengue and yellow fever risk KW - Kenya KW - Mosquito diversity KW - Resting preference KW - Urbanization KW - Vector abundance SP - 628 EP - 628 JF - Parasites & vectors JO - Parasit Vectors VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The transmission patterns of dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses, especially in urban settings, are influenced by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito abundance and behavior. Despite recurrent dengue outbreaks on the Kenyan coast, these parameters remain poorly defined in this and other areas of contrasting dengue endemicity in Kenya. In assessing the transmission risk of DENV/YFV in three Kenyan cities, we determined adult abundance and resting habits of potential Aedes (Stegomyia) vectors in Kilifi (dengue-outbreak prone), and Nairobi and Kisumu (no dengue outbreaks reported). In addition, mosquito diversity, an important consideration for changing mosquito-borne disease dynamics, was compared. METHODS: Between October 2014 and June 2016, host-seeking adult mosquitoes were sampled using CO2-baited BG-Sentinel traps (12 traps daily) placed in vegetation around homesteads, across study sites in the three major cities. Also, indoor and outdoor resting mosquitoes were sampled using Prokopack aspirators. Three samplings, each of five consecutive days, were conducted during the long-rains, short-rains and dry season for each city. Inter-city and seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and diversity was evaluated using general linear models while mosquito-resting preference (indoors vs outdoors) was compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Aedes aegypti, which comprised 60% (n = 7772) of the total 12,937 host-seeking mosquitoes collected, had comparable numbers in Kisumu (45.2%, n = 3513) and Kilifi (37.7%, n = 2932), both being significantly higher than Nairobi (17.1%, n = 1327). Aedes aegypti abundance was significantly lower in the short-rains and dry season relative to the long-rains (P < 0.0001). Aedes bromeliae, which occurred in low numbers, did not differ significantly between seasons or cities. Mosquito diversity was highest during the long-rains and in Nairobi. Only 10% (n = 43) of the 450 houses aspirated were found positive for resting Ae. aegypti, with overall low captures in all areas. Aedes aegypti densities were comparable indoors/outdoors in Kilifi; but with higher densities outdoors than indoors in Kisumu and Nairobi. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti near human habitations and dwellings, especially in Kilifi/Kisumu, is suggestive of increased DENV transmission risk due to higher prospects of human vector contact. Despite low abundance of Ae. bromeliae suggestive of low YFV transmission risk, its proximity to human habitation as well as the observed diversity of potential YFV vectors should be of public health concern and monitored closely for targeted control. The largely outdoor resting behavior for Ae. aegypti provides insights for targeted adult vector control especially during emergency outbreak situations. SN - 1756-3305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29284522/Dengue_and_yellow_fever_virus_vectors:_seasonal_abundance_diversity_and_resting_preferences_in_three_Kenyan_cities_ L2 - https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-017-2598-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -