Enhanced Biopharmaceutical Performance of Rivaroxaban through Polymeric Amorphous Solid Dispersion.Mol Pharm. 2018 02 05; 15(2):652-668.MP
Rivaroxaban (RXB) is an orally active direct inhibitor of the activated serine protease Factor Xa, given as monotherapy in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). It has been characterized in vitro as a substrate for the active, nonsaturable efflux via P-gp transporter, limiting its high permeability. Therefore, the role of P-gp inhibiting polymers in enhancing the biopharmaceutical performance of RXB by preparing polymeric amorphous solid dispersion and subsequent improvement in solubility and permeability was investigated. Initially, solubility parameter and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter were determined for miscibility studies between drug and polymers. Binary dispersions were prepared by dissolving drug with polymers eudragit S100, eudragit L100, and soluplus in common solvent (5% v/v water in tetrahydrofuran) using spray dryer. Prepared binary dispersions were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Superior performance of binary dispersions was observed upon dissolution and solubility studies over micronized active pharmaceutical ingredient. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) prepared with soluplus showed 10-fold increase in apparent solubility and maintenance of supersaturation for 24 h compared to the crystalline RXB. Further, pharmacokinetic study performed in animals was in good correlation with the solubility data. Increases of 5.7- and 6.7-fold were observed in AUC and Cmax, respectively, for ASDs prepared with soluplus compared to those with crystalline RXB. FTIR and NMR spectroscopy unveiled the involvement of N-H group of RXB with C═O group of polymers in intermolecular interactions. The decreased drug efflux ratio was observed for ASDs prepared with eudragit S100 and soluplus in Caco-2 transport study suggesting improvement in the absorption of RXB. Hence, the present study demonstrates ASD using soluplus as a promising formulation strategy for enhancing the biopharmaceutical performance of RXB by increasing the solubility and circumventing the P-gp activity.