HBP induces the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 via the FAK/PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathways in vascular endothelial cells.Cell Signal. 2018 03; 43:85-94.CS
Inflammation is characterized by early influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), followed by a second wave of monocyte recruitment. PMNs mediate monocyte recruitment via their release of heparin binding protein (HBP), which activates CCR2 (CC-chemokine receptor 2) on monocytes. However, the pathways for such signal transmission remain unknown. Accumulating evidences have highlighted the importance of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in the initiation of inflammation. In this study, an interesting finding is that HBP enhances the secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1(MCP-1), ligand of CCR2, from a third party, the endothelial cells (ECs). HBP-induced increase in MCP-1 production was demonstrated at the protein, mRNA and secretion levels. Exposure of ECs to HBP elicited rapid phosphorylation of FAK/PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling. MCP-1 levels were attenuated during the response to HBP stimulation by pretreatment with a FAK inhibitor (or siRNA), a PI3K inhibitor, an AKT inhibitor, a p38 inhibitor (or siRNA) and two NF-κB inhibitors. Additionally, pretreatment with inhibitors to FAK, PI3K and AKT led to a decrease in HBP-induced phosphorylation of p38/NF-κB axis. These results showed that HBP induced MCP-1 expression via a sequential activation of the FAK/PI3K/AKT pathway and p38 MAPK/NF-κB axis. Interestingly, the patterns of HBP regulation of the expression of the adhesion molecular VCAM-1 were similar to those seen in MCP-1 after pretreatment with inhibitors (or not). These findings may help to determine key pharmacological points of intervention, thus slowing the progress of inflammatory-mediated responses in certain diseases where inflammation is detrimental to the host.