Removal of macro-pollutants in oily wastewater obtained from soil remediation plant using electro-oxidation process.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Mar; 25(8):7748-7757.ES
Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm-2 and 14.7 μm s-1, respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61.5 mA cm-2. It was observed that direct oxidation was the main removal mechanism of organic and inorganic carbon, while the indirect oxidation in higher current density was responsible for nitrogen oxidation. Hydrocarbon in the form of colloidal particles could be removed by electro-flotation. On the other hand, electro-decomposition on the surface of cathode and precipitation by hydroxyl ions were the utmost removal pathway of metals. According to the initial experiments, operating condition was further optimized by central composite design model in different current density, treatment time, and electrolyte addition, based on the best responses on the specific energy consumption (SEC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Unde r optimum operating condition (current density = 23.1 mA cm-2, time = 120 min, Ti/Pt as a cathode, and Nb/BDD as the anode), electro-oxidation showed the following removal efficiencies: COD (84.6%), TOC (68.2%), oil and grease (99%), color (87.9%), total alkalinity (92%), Ntot (18%), NH4+ (31%), Ca (66.4%), Fe (71.1%), Mg (41.4%), Mn (78.1%), Ptot (75%), S (67.1%), and Si (19.1%). Graphical abstract Environmental significance statement Soil treatment facilities are rapidly grown throughout the world, especially in North America due to its intense industrialization. High water content soil in humid area like Canada produces significant amount of leachate which is difficult to remove by physical and biological processes. Current treatment facility was modified by applying the electro-chemical oxidation process. The kinetic models of each macro-pollutant included carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and metals were developed to investigate their oxidation mechanism (graphical abstract). The efficiency of treatment was monitored in order to optimize the decisive operating parameters of electro-oxidation process. The result of this article could pave the way of future investigation on efficient treatment of variety of oily wastewater.