[Energy Metabolism in the Placenta and the Role of Disturbances in the Development of Placental Insufficiency at an Exacerbation of Cytomegalovirus Infection].Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2016; 71(3):177-82.VR
Determine the characteristics of placental energy metabolism and to establish its role in the development of placental insufficiency at an exacerbation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in 25–28 weeks of gestation.
In a prospective study of the case-control type included pregnant, delivery on term of 37–38 weeks. The sample of 50 pregnant women, including 25 CMV-seropositive with exacerbation of CMV infection at 25–28 weeks of gestation and with the titer of IgG antibodies to CMV 1: 1600 at the time of the study and 25 CMV-seronegative women the same pregnancy. The study was conducted at the obstetric department of pathology of pregnancy and laboratory «Etiopathogenesis mechanisms and recovery processes with non-specific lung diseases» Far Eastern Scientific Center of Physiology and Pathology of Respiration together with the urban maternity ward at City Hospital in the period from 2014 to 2015. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and a dehydrogenase lipoic acid was determined by histochemical methods on cryostat sections of fresh frozen tissue placenta by the method of R. Lilly. Evaluation of the intensity of histochemical reactions carried out by the program cytophotometry Scion. The morphology of the placenta was studied in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin Böhmer-eosin, van Gieson’s picrofuchsin and alcian blue by Steedman.
Exacerbation of CMV infection at 25–28 weeks of gestation leads to a decrease in the intensity of the histochemical reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase in 2.4 times, lipoic acid dehydrogenase — in 2.9 times, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase — in 1.5 times in the syncytiotrophoblast villous placenta. The placental morphological structure study showed villi in a state of death or necrotic changes, as well as increasing the number of avascular immature villi. In the maternal part of the placenta were marked constriction clearances, hypertrophy of muscle and connective tissue layers blood vessels.
The findings suggest that the exacerbation of CMV infection at 25–28 weeks of pregnancy causes a decrease in the intensity of energy metabolism in the placenta by suppressing the activity of the enzymes α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which is accompanied by disturbances of the morphological structure of the placental barrier, the development of placental insufficiency.