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Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing.
Am J Infect Control 2018; 46(5):507-511AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Past studies have shown that infectious aerosols created during toilet flushing result in surface contamination of the restroom. The goals of this study were to quantify viral contamination of surfaces in restrooms after flushing and the impact of disinfectants added to the toilet bowl prior to flushing on reducing surface contamination.

METHODS

The degree of contamination of surfaces in the restroom was assessed with and without the addition of coliphage MS2 to the toilet bowl before flushing. The bowl water and various surfaces in the restroom were subsequently tested for the presence of the virus.

RESULTS

The toilet bowl rim, toilet seat top, and toilet seat underside were contaminated in all trials without a disinfectant added to the bowl water before flushing. All disinfectants significantly reduced concentrations on surfaces when the contact time was ≥15 minutes. Hydrogen peroxide resulted in very little reduction of virus in the toilet bowl (<1 log10). Peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium had the greatest log reductions on virus in the organic matter in the toilet.

CONCLUSIONS

Toilet flushing resulted in extensive contamination of surfaces within the restroom. Addition of disinfectant to the toilet bowl prior to flushing reduced the level of contamination in the bowl and fomites after flushing.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; School of Life and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: hannah.sassi@sydney.edu.au.Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29305284

Citation

Sassi, Hannah P., et al. "Evaluation of Hospital-grade Disinfectants On Viral Deposition On Surfaces After Toilet Flushing." American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 46, no. 5, 2018, pp. 507-511.
Sassi HP, Reynolds KA, Pepper IL, et al. Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing. Am J Infect Control. 2018;46(5):507-511.
Sassi, H. P., Reynolds, K. A., Pepper, I. L., & Gerba, C. P. (2018). Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(5), pp. 507-511. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.005.
Sassi HP, et al. Evaluation of Hospital-grade Disinfectants On Viral Deposition On Surfaces After Toilet Flushing. Am J Infect Control. 2018;46(5):507-511. PubMed PMID: 29305284.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing. AU - Sassi,Hannah P, AU - Reynolds,Kelly A, AU - Pepper,Ian L, AU - Gerba,Charles P, Y1 - 2018/01/02/ PY - 2017/11/01/received PY - 2017/11/03/revised PY - 2017/11/03/accepted PY - 2018/1/7/pubmed PY - 2019/8/7/medline PY - 2018/1/7/entrez KW - Ebola virus KW - Health care–associated infections KW - aerosols KW - disinfection KW - fomite transmission SP - 507 EP - 511 JF - American journal of infection control JO - Am J Infect Control VL - 46 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that infectious aerosols created during toilet flushing result in surface contamination of the restroom. The goals of this study were to quantify viral contamination of surfaces in restrooms after flushing and the impact of disinfectants added to the toilet bowl prior to flushing on reducing surface contamination. METHODS: The degree of contamination of surfaces in the restroom was assessed with and without the addition of coliphage MS2 to the toilet bowl before flushing. The bowl water and various surfaces in the restroom were subsequently tested for the presence of the virus. RESULTS: The toilet bowl rim, toilet seat top, and toilet seat underside were contaminated in all trials without a disinfectant added to the bowl water before flushing. All disinfectants significantly reduced concentrations on surfaces when the contact time was ≥15 minutes. Hydrogen peroxide resulted in very little reduction of virus in the toilet bowl (<1 log10). Peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium had the greatest log reductions on virus in the organic matter in the toilet. CONCLUSIONS: Toilet flushing resulted in extensive contamination of surfaces within the restroom. Addition of disinfectant to the toilet bowl prior to flushing reduced the level of contamination in the bowl and fomites after flushing. SN - 1527-3296 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29305284/Evaluation_of_hospital_grade_disinfectants_on_viral_deposition_on_surfaces_after_toilet_flushing_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-6553(17)31228-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -