Three-Dimensional Printed Skull Base Simulation for Transnasal Endoscopic Surgical Training.World Neurosurg. 2018 Mar; 111:e773-e782.WN
Transnasal endoscopic skull base surgery (SBS) presents a major challenge for inexperienced neurosurgeons because of the complicated anatomic structures, 2-dimensional endoscopic view, limited operative field, and required skills. We designed a personalized multimaterial and multicolor three-dimensional (3D)-printed SBS simulation to reproduce the complex anatomy of the skull base. The fidelity and feasibility for anatomic education and surgical training were assessed.
Two-dimensional computer tomography and magnetic resonance images were collected from a 42-year-old healthy male volunteer. After 3D modeling and spatial alignment, personalized SBS simulations were produced using a multimaterial 3D printer. The fidelity of the models was assessed by 3 experienced neurosurgeons, and the effects for anatomic education and surgical training were evaluated by 10 resident trainees. Both evaluations were based on 5-point Likert questionnaires.
The mean scores for fidelity of tissue structure ranged from 3.7 to 4.7, and scores for aid in anatomic education and surgical training ranged from 3.5 to 4.9.
The 3D-printed SBS simulation is a practical, economical, high-fidelity model. It has great potential for anatomic education and operative training in transnasal endoscopic surgery.