Trophic transfer of citrate, PVP coated silver nanomaterials, and silver ions in a paddy microcosm.Environ Pollut. 2018 Apr; 235:435-445.EP
We used replicated paddy microcosm systems to estimate the tropic transfer of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP citrate), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated AgNP (AgNP PVP), and silver ions (AgNO3) for 14 days under two exposure regimes (a single high-dose exposure; 60 μg L-1 and a sequential low-dose exposure at 1 h, 4 days and 9 days; 20 μg L-1 × 3 = 60 μg L-1). Most Ag ions from AgNO3 had dispersed in the water and precipitated partly on the sediment, whereas the two Ag NPs rapidly coagulated and precipitated on the sediment. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of Ag from AgNPs and AgNO3 in Chinese muddy loaches and biofilms were higher than those of river snails in both exposure conditions. These BCFs were more prominent for 14 days exposure (7.30 for Chinese muddy loach; 4.48 for biofilm) in the low-dose group than in the single high-dose group. Their retention of AgNPs and Ag ions differed between the two exposure conditions, and uptake and elimination kinetics of Ag significantly differed between AgNP citrate and AgNP PVP in the sequential low-dose exposure. Stable isotopes analyses indicated that the trophic levels between Chinese muddy loaches and biofilms and between river snails and biofilms were 2.37 and 2.27, respectively. The biomagnification factors (BMFs) of AgNPs and AgNO3 between Chinese muddy loaches and biofilms were significantly higher than those between river snails and biofilms under both exposure settings. The BMFs of AgNP citrate and AgNO3 between Chinese muddy loaches and biofilms were greater than those of AgNP PVP for 14 days in the single high-dose group, whereas the BMFs of AgNP PVP were greater than those of AgNP citrate and AgNO3 in the sequential low-dose group. These microcosm data suggest that AgNPs have the potential to impact on ecological receptors and food chains.