Silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite film prepared using water in oil microemulsion for antibacterial applications.J Colloid Interface Sci. 2018 Mar 15; 514:648-655.JC
Water in oil microemulsion (w/o) is a simple preparative route for nanoparticles where water droplets (dispersed in continuous oil medium and stabilized by surfactants and cosurfactants) act as nanoreactors to carry out chemical reactions. If polymeric matrix is incorporated inside the core of the microemulsions, it should prevent the agglomeration of nanoparticles after separation from microemulsions. Thus polymer nanocomposite films prepared from w/o microemulsions are expected to give narrow and homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles throughout the polymer host.
Silver/poly(vinyl alcohol) (Ag/PVA) nanocomposite film was successfully prepared, for the first time, using Triton X-100 (TX-100)/1-butanol/cyclohexane/water microemulsion. Reduction of the metal salt was carried out in the core of w/o microemulsion droplets containing PVA polymeric matrix. After separation from the microemulsion, Ag/PVA nanocomposite film was then prepared by solution casting method. The antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was tested against Gram-negative, Escherichia coli and Gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus by agar diffusion method.
Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 105 nm could be synthesized using PVA, whereas in the absence of PVA the nanoparticles agglomerated. The distribution of Ag nanoparticles on PVA surface of the nanocomposite film prepared using microemulsion was uniform, whereas the film prepared through in situ generation of Ag nanoparticles by chemical reduction process on PVA host showed non-uniform, coagulated, bunches of Ag nanoparticles. The film synthesized using microemulsion exhibited enhanced antibacterial efficacy compared to that prepared through in situ synthesis under the same test condition.