Molecular Epidemiology of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Gene Encoding a 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigen in Chiggers, Small Mammals, and Patients from the Southwest Region of Korea.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 02; 98(2):616-624.AJ
A phylogenetic analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi was performed to elucidate its antigenic diversity in chiggers, small mammals, and patients. Between September 2014 and December 2016, a total of 3,816 chiggers were identified within nine species of four genera in the southwest region of Korea: Leptotrombidium scutellare (49.9%; 1,907/3,816), Leptotrombidium orientale (21.1%; 804/3,816), Leptotrombidium pallidum (12.4%; 474/3,816), Euchoengastia koreaensis (7.2%; 273/3,816), Leptotrombidium palpale (6.7%; 256/3,816), Neotrombicular gardellai (1.3%; 50/3,816), Leptotrombidium zetum (0.8%; 32/3,816), Walchia fragilis (0.5%; 18/3,816), and Neotrombicular japonica (> 0.1%; 2/3,816). Twelve chiggers (11 L. scutellare and one L. palpale) tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi by polymerase chain reaction and, except for 1 chigger (KY266830), were part of the Boryong strain cluster. Of the 413 small mammals that were analyzed for O. tsutsugamushi, Apodemus agrarius was the most common rodent species (89.5%; 370/413), followed by Crocidura lasiura (6.8%; 28/413) and Myodes regulus (3.6%; 15/413). The sequence identity of an O. tsutsugamushi sample obtained from the A. agrarius sample population belonged to the Saitama strain cluster. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis in 125 patients revealed four clusters (Boryong cluster: 82.4% [103/125], Karp: 13.6% [17/125], Kawasaki: 3.2% [4/125], and Saitama: 0.8% [1/125]). This study clarified the phylogenetic relationship for O. tsutsugamushi in chiggers, small mammals, and patients. The Boryong strain was the most common strain in chiggers and patients. In addition, various strains were identified, except for the Boryong strain, in the southwest region of Korea. Overall, the data presented here will be helpful for the establishment of prevention strategies for scrub typhus.