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Factors Associated with Tobacco Use among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.
Subst Use Misuse 2018; 53(9):1511-1518SU

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors.

OBJECTIVE

This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior.

METHOD

The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use.

RESULTS

The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P < 0.001), fear (β = 0/149, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0/249, P < 0.001), perceived intrinsic reward (β = -0.285, P < 0.001), threat appraisal (β = -0.25, P < 0.001), and coping appraisal (β = 0.358, P < 0.001) had direct effect and are significant with intention. Moreover, perceived vulnerability (β = -0.158, P < 0.001), fear (β = -0.172, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = -0.288, P < 0.001), perceived intrinsic reward (β = 0.329, P < 0.001), threat appraisal (β = 0.265, P < 0.001), and coping appraisal (β = -0.379, P < 0.001) affected tobacco use indirectly through intention and were significantly associated with behavior. Also, intention had direct effect and is significant with tobacco use (β = -1.156, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The protection motivation theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Health Education & Promotion , Alborz University of Medical Sciences , Karaj , Iran.a Department of Health Education & Promotion , Alborz University of Medical Sciences , Karaj , Iran.b Research Center of Road Traffic Injury Prevention , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.c Department of Health Education & Promotion , Semnan University of Medical Sciences , Semnan , Iran.d Department of Public Health , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari , Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29313745

Citation

Sabzmakan, Leila, et al. "Factors Associated With Tobacco Use Among Iranian Adolescents: an Application of Protection Motivation Theory." Substance Use & Misuse, vol. 53, no. 9, 2018, pp. 1511-1518.
Sabzmakan L, Ghasemi M, Asghari Jafarabadi M, et al. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory. Subst Use Misuse. 2018;53(9):1511-1518.
Sabzmakan, L., Ghasemi, M., Asghari Jafarabadi, M., Kamalikhah, T., & Chaleshgar Kordasiabi, M. (2018). Factors Associated with Tobacco Use among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory. Substance Use & Misuse, 53(9), pp. 1511-1518. doi:10.1080/10826084.2017.1415356.
Sabzmakan L, et al. Factors Associated With Tobacco Use Among Iranian Adolescents: an Application of Protection Motivation Theory. Subst Use Misuse. 2018 07 29;53(9):1511-1518. PubMed PMID: 29313745.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Factors Associated with Tobacco Use among Iranian Adolescents: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory. AU - Sabzmakan,Leila, AU - Ghasemi,Mahmood, AU - Asghari Jafarabadi,Mohammad, AU - Kamalikhah,Tahereh, AU - Chaleshgar Kordasiabi,Mosharafeh, Y1 - 2018/01/09/ PY - 2018/1/10/pubmed PY - 2019/1/11/medline PY - 2018/1/10/entrez KW - Adolescents KW - cigarettes KW - protection motivation theory KW - water pipe SP - 1511 EP - 1518 JF - Substance use & misuse JO - Subst Use Misuse VL - 53 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016. A questionnaire about tobacco use based on protection motivation theory was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. The questionnaire included the demographic information, the constructs of theory, and tobacco use behavior. Structural equation modeling was used to test the associations between the constructs with intention and tobacco use. RESULTS: The variables of perceived vulnerability (β = 0/137, P < 0.001), fear (β = 0/149, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0/249, P < 0.001), perceived intrinsic reward (β = -0.285, P < 0.001), threat appraisal (β = -0.25, P < 0.001), and coping appraisal (β = 0.358, P < 0.001) had direct effect and are significant with intention. Moreover, perceived vulnerability (β = -0.158, P < 0.001), fear (β = -0.172, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (β = -0.288, P < 0.001), perceived intrinsic reward (β = 0.329, P < 0.001), threat appraisal (β = 0.265, P < 0.001), and coping appraisal (β = -0.379, P < 0.001) affected tobacco use indirectly through intention and were significantly associated with behavior. Also, intention had direct effect and is significant with tobacco use (β = -1.156, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The protection motivation theory provides a useful framework for investigating factors of tobacco use among male students. Future tobacco prevention interventions should focus on increasing the vulnerability and fear, decreasing intrinsic reward, and improving self-efficacy to reduce tobacco use. SN - 1532-2491 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29313745/Factors_Associated_with_Tobacco_Use_among_Iranian_Adolescents:_An_Application_of_Protection_Motivation_Theory_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10826084.2017.1415356 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -