Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Oxylipins in a Routine Clinical Setting.Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(1)IJ
Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), especially in Western diet. A high omega-6/omega-3 ratio in Western diets is implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes. Studies in animal models and in humans have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) in a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias and inflammatory diseases, as well as breast and colon cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of n-3 PUFA are still not well understood. Possible mechanisms include competition between n-3 and n-6 PUFAs at the cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 levels, and subsequent formation of oxylipins with specific anti-inflammatory or anti-arrhythmic effects. In this study, we report the impact of routine long-term treatment with prescription-grade n-3 PUFA (either 840 mg or 1680 mg per day) on blood cell membrane fatty acid composition, as well as plasma oxylipin patterns, in a patient population with severe hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease who are on standard lipid-lowering and cardioprotective medications. Lipidomics analyses were performed by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Supplementation led to a dose-dependent increase in n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood cell fraction. We also observed a dose-dependent increase in EPA- and DHA-derived epoxy metabolites, whereas the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on LOX-dependent EPA- and DHA-derived hydroxy metabolites was less pronounced, with a tendency towards lower metabolites in subjects with higher n-3 PUFA levels. These data thus generally confirm effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation observed previously in healthy individuals. Additionally, they indicate a suppressive effect of high n-3 PUFA supplementation on the formation of LOX metabolites in the context of concomitant aspirin medication.