C18 core-shell column with in-series absorbance and fluorescence detection for simultaneous monitoring of changes in stilbenoid and proanthocyanidin concentrations during grape cane storage.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018 Feb 01; 1074-1075:70-78.JC
Grape canes, the residues from the annual pruning of vines, contain high levels of inducible (E)-resveratrol and also oligomeric stilbenoids and proanthocyanidins. These two families of phenolic compounds are bioactive, but to quantify them in a single chromatographic run using only ultraviolet detection is a difficult task. To overcome this limitation, a chromatographic method was developed using a core shell column for separation, an ultraviolet-visible diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence (FL) detector connected in series for quantification, with an electrospray ionization interface (ESI) and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detector (MS/MS) added for identification of the analytes. The proanthocyanidins (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidins B1, B2, and C1, an unknown dimer and trimer, two prodelphinidin dimers, and monogallate procyanidin dimers were detected in the tested grape cane samples. The stilbenoids detected were (E)-resveratrol, (E)-piceatannol, (E)-piceid, (E)-ε-viniferin, vitisin B, a glycosylated monomer, three oxidized dimers, an unknown dimer and a tetramer, pallidol, hopeaphenol, (E)-δ-viniferin, and (E)-ω-viniferin. However, this method required 60min for each analysis. A faster and more efficient method for quantitative analysis was developed based on HPLC-DAD-FL, reducing the time required to 24min for the simultaneous quantification of proanthocyanidins and stilbenoids in Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, and Tintorera grape canes stored at controlled temperatures and relativity humidities for 134days after pruning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a prodelphinidin dimer has been quantified in grape canes. The incorporation of fluorescence detection in series with DAD not only allowed the quantification of proanthocyanidins, it also improved the detectability of some minor stilbenoids present in the canes, such as (E)-piceid. The (E)-resveratrol and (E)-piceatannol levels increased significantly during cane storage, while those of (E)-ε-viniferin and ampelopsin A did not show significant increases. The relative humidity had a determining effect on the levels of (E)-resveratrol and (E)-piceatannol in the canes of all varieties studied; their concentrations were higher at a relative humidity of 60% than at 70%. This is the first time that the proanthocyanidin profiles of canes stored after pruning were monitored under controlled conditions of temperature, time and relative humidity. The concentration of (-)-epicatechin decreased during storage under both relative humidities. Furthermore, the levels of proanthocyanidin B1 and the prodelphinidin dimer also decreased to a certain extent.