Enhancement of Phenolic Production and Antioxidant Activity from Buckwheat Leaves by Subcritical Water Extraction.Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2017 Dec; 22(4):345-352.PN
To enhance the production of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and reduce the level of phototoxic fagopyrin, buckwheat leaves were extracted with subcritical water (SW) at 100~220°C for 10~50 min. The major phenolic compounds were quercetin, gallic acid, and protocatechuic acid. The cumulative amount of individual phenolic compounds increased with increasing extraction temperature from 100°C to 180°C and did not change significantly at 200°C and 220°C. The highest yield of individual phenolic compounds was 1,632.2 μg/g dry sample at 180°C, which was 4.7-fold higher than that (348.4 μg/g dry sample) at 100°C. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content increased with increasing extraction temperature and decreased with increasing extraction time, and peaked at 41.1 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 26.9 mg quercetin equivalents/g at 180°C/10 min, respectively. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing ability of plasma reached 46.4 mg ascorbic acid equivalents/g and 72.3 mmol Fe2+/100 g at 180°C/10 min, respectively. The fagopyrin contents were reduced by 92.5~95.7%. Color values L* and b* decreased, and a* increased with increasing extraction temperature. SW extraction enhanced the yield of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity and reduced the fagopyrin content from buckwheat leaves.