[A comparative analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis with or without abnormal findings on cranial magnetic resonance imaging].Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2018 Jan; 20(1):48-51.ZD
To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis.
A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings.
In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%). All children had positive anti-NMDAR antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid, and 29 children (88%) had positive serum antibody. Of all the children, 15 (46%) had increased leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid, 3 (9%) had an increase in protein, and 29 (88%) had positive oligoclonal band; 26 children (79%) had electroencephalographic abnormalities (epileptic wave, slow wave, or a combination of these two types of waves). One child experienced respiratory failure. One child was found to have germinoma in the sellar region during follow-up. Of all the 33 children, 13 (39%) had abnormal cranial MRI findings, with hypointensity or isointensity on T1W1 and hyperintensity on T2WI and T2-FLAIR; 2 children had dural enhancement. As for the location of lesion, 5 children (38%) had lesions in the temporal lobe, 3 (23%) in the frontal lobe, 3 (23%) in the basal ganglia, 2 (15%) in the parietal lobe, 2 (15%) in the occipital lobe, 2 (15%) in the brainstem, 1 (8%) in the thalamus, and 1 (8%) in the cerebellum. Among the 13 children with abnormal cranial MRI findings, 5 (38%) had lesions mainly in the grey matter and 8 (62%) had lesions mainly in the white matter. Compared with the children with normal cranial MRI findings, the children with abnormal cranial MRI findings had significantly higher proportion of children with prodromal infection, incidence rate of disturbance of consciousness, probability of recurrence, Glasgow score, incidence rate of increased leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid, and application rate of second-line treatment (P<0.05).
Children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and abnormal cranial MRI findings have certain clinical features, which may provide guidance for the evaluation of disease conditions and the selection of diagnostic and treatment measures.