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Electrolyte selection and microbial toxicity for electrochemical oxidative water treatment using a boron-doped diamond anode to support site specific contamination incident response.
Chemosphere. 2018 Apr; 197:135-141.C

Abstract

Intentional and unintentional contamination incidents, such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and accidental spills, can result in large volumes of contaminated water. These waters may require pre-treatment before disposal and assurances that treated waters will not adversely impact biological processes at wastewater treatment facilities, or receiving waters. Based on recommendations of an industrial workgroup, this study addresses such concerns by studying electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) pre-treatment for contaminated waters, using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, prior to discharge to wastewater treatment facilities. Reaction conditions were investigated, and microbial toxicity was assessed using the Microtox® toxicity assay and the Nitrification Inhibition test. A range of contaminants were studied including herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and flame retardants. Resulting toxicities varied with supporting electrolyte from 5% to 92%, often increasing, indicating that microbial toxicity, in addition to parent compound degradation, should be monitored during treatment. These toxicity results are particularly novel because they systematically compare the microbial toxicity effects of a variety of supporting electrolytes, indicating some electrolytes may not be appropriate in certain applications. Further, these results are the first known report of the use of the Nitrification Inhibition test for this application. Overall, these results systematically demonstrate that anodic oxidation using the BDD anode is useful for addressing water contaminated with refractory organic contaminants, while minimizing impacts to wastewater plants or receiving waters accepting EAOP-treated effluent. The results of this study indicate nitrate can be a suitable electrolyte for incident response and, more importantly, serve as a baseline for site specific EAOP usage.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Research Program hosted by US Environmental Protection Agency, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20004, USA.Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201, USA.US Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA. Electronic address: Magnuson.Matthew@EPA.gov.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29339273

Citation

Phillips, Rebecca B., et al. "Electrolyte Selection and Microbial Toxicity for Electrochemical Oxidative Water Treatment Using a Boron-doped Diamond Anode to Support Site Specific Contamination Incident Response." Chemosphere, vol. 197, 2018, pp. 135-141.
Phillips RB, James RR, Magnuson ML. Electrolyte selection and microbial toxicity for electrochemical oxidative water treatment using a boron-doped diamond anode to support site specific contamination incident response. Chemosphere. 2018;197:135-141.
Phillips, R. B., James, R. R., & Magnuson, M. L. (2018). Electrolyte selection and microbial toxicity for electrochemical oxidative water treatment using a boron-doped diamond anode to support site specific contamination incident response. Chemosphere, 197, 135-141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.007
Phillips RB, James RR, Magnuson ML. Electrolyte Selection and Microbial Toxicity for Electrochemical Oxidative Water Treatment Using a Boron-doped Diamond Anode to Support Site Specific Contamination Incident Response. Chemosphere. 2018;197:135-141. PubMed PMID: 29339273.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Electrolyte selection and microbial toxicity for electrochemical oxidative water treatment using a boron-doped diamond anode to support site specific contamination incident response. AU - Phillips,Rebecca B, AU - James,Ryan R, AU - Magnuson,Matthew L, Y1 - 2018/01/06/ PY - 2017/09/25/received PY - 2018/01/02/revised PY - 2018/01/03/accepted PY - 2018/1/18/pubmed PY - 2018/5/18/medline PY - 2018/1/18/entrez KW - Boron-doped diamond anode KW - Electrochemical advanced oxidation process KW - Microtox(®) toxicity KW - Nitrification inhibition SP - 135 EP - 141 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 197 N2 - Intentional and unintentional contamination incidents, such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and accidental spills, can result in large volumes of contaminated water. These waters may require pre-treatment before disposal and assurances that treated waters will not adversely impact biological processes at wastewater treatment facilities, or receiving waters. Based on recommendations of an industrial workgroup, this study addresses such concerns by studying electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) pre-treatment for contaminated waters, using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, prior to discharge to wastewater treatment facilities. Reaction conditions were investigated, and microbial toxicity was assessed using the Microtox® toxicity assay and the Nitrification Inhibition test. A range of contaminants were studied including herbicides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and flame retardants. Resulting toxicities varied with supporting electrolyte from 5% to 92%, often increasing, indicating that microbial toxicity, in addition to parent compound degradation, should be monitored during treatment. These toxicity results are particularly novel because they systematically compare the microbial toxicity effects of a variety of supporting electrolytes, indicating some electrolytes may not be appropriate in certain applications. Further, these results are the first known report of the use of the Nitrification Inhibition test for this application. Overall, these results systematically demonstrate that anodic oxidation using the BDD anode is useful for addressing water contaminated with refractory organic contaminants, while minimizing impacts to wastewater plants or receiving waters accepting EAOP-treated effluent. The results of this study indicate nitrate can be a suitable electrolyte for incident response and, more importantly, serve as a baseline for site specific EAOP usage. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29339273/Electrolyte_selection_and_microbial_toxicity_for_electrochemical_oxidative_water_treatment_using_a_boron_doped_diamond_anode_to_support_site_specific_contamination_incident_response_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(18)30006-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -